Project description:The increased urban pressures are often associated with specialization of microbial communities. Microbial communities being a critical player in the geochemical processes, makes it important to identify key environmental parameters that influence the community structure and its function.In this proect we study the influence of land use type and environmental parameters on the structure and function of microbial communities. The present study was conducted in an urban catchment, where the metal and pollutants levels are under allowable limits. The overall goal of this study is to understand the role of engineered physicochemical environment on the structure and function of microbial communities in urban storm-water canals. Microbial community structure was determined using PhyoChio (G3) Water and sediment samples were collected after a rain event from Sungei Ulu Pandan watershed of >25km2, which has two major land use types: Residential and industrial. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical variables and microbial community structure and composition. Microbial community structure was determined using PhyoChio (G3)
Project description:The increased urban pressures are often associated with specialization of microbial communities. Microbial communities being a critical player in the geochemical processes, makes it important to identify key environmental parameters that influence the community structure and its function.In this proect we study the influence of land use type and environmental parameters on the structure and function of microbial communities. The present study was conducted in an urban catchment, where the metal and pollutants levels are under allowable limits. The overall goal of this study is to understand the role of engineered physicochemical environment on the structure and function of microbial communities in urban storm-water canals. Water and sediment samples were collected after a rain event from Sungei Ulu Pandan watershed of >25km2, which has two major land use types: Residential and industrial. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical variables and microbial community structure and composition. Functional gene abundance was determined using GeoChip.
Project description:Microbial communities control numerous biogeochemical processes critical for ecosystem function and health. Most analyses of coastal microbial communities focus on the characterization of bacteria present in either sediment or seawater, with fewer studies characterizing both sediment and seawater together at a given site, and even fewer studies including information about non-bacterial microbial communities. As a result, knowledge about the ecological patterns of microbial biodiversity across domains and habitats in coastal communities is limited-despite the fact that archaea, bacteria, and microbial eukaryotes are present and known to interact in coastal habitats. To better understand microbial biodiversity patterns in coastal ecosystems, we characterized sediment and seawater microbial communities for three sites along the coastline of Puerto Nuevo, Baja California, Mexico using both 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that sediment hosted approximately 500-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukaryotes than seawater (p < 0.001). Distinct phyla were found in sediment versus seawater samples. Of the top ten most abundant classes, Cytophagia (bacterial) and Chromadorea (eukaryal) were specific to the sediment environment, whereas Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidia (bacterial) and Chlorophyceae (eukaryal) were specific to the seawater environment. A total of 47 unique genera were observed to comprise the core taxa community across environment types and sites. No archaeal taxa were observed as part of either the abundant or core taxa. No significant differences were observed for sediment community composition across domains or between sites. For seawater, the bacterial and archaeal community composition was statistically different for the Major Outlet site (p < 0.05), the site closest to a residential area, and the eukaryal community composition was statistically different between all sites (p < 0.05). Our findings highlight the distinct patterns and spatial heterogeneity in microbial communities of a coastal region in Baja California, Mexico.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are believed to be driven by dysregulated interactions between the host and the gut microbiota. Our goal is to characterize the relationships between mucosal T cells, the host tissue environment and microbial communities in IBD patients to identify new therapeutic targets. We identified 26 predictors from our combined data set that were effective in distinguishing between regions of the intestine undergoing active inflammation and regions that were normal. Network analysis on these 26 predictors revealed SAA1 as the most connected node linking the abundance of the genus Bacteroides with the production of IL17 and IL22 by CD4+ T cells. The SAA1-linked microbial and transcriptome interactions were further validated with data from the pediatric IBD RISK cohort. This study identifies expression of SAA1 as an important link between mucosal T cells, microbial communities and their tissue environment in IBD patients. A combination of FACS, gene expression and microbial profiling can distinguish between intestinal inflammatory states in IBD regardless of disease types. Overall design: We characterized mucosal CD4+ T cells using flow cytometry (FACS), along with matching mucosal global gene expression and microbial communities data from 35 pinch biopsy samples from IBD patients. We analyzed these data sets using an integrated framework to identify predictors of inflammatory states and then validated the putative relationship networks by analyzing data from the pediatric RISK cohort.
Project description:Top-down control of prey by predators are magnified in productive ecosystems due to higher sustenance of prey communities. In soil micro-arthropod food webs, plant communities regulate the availability of basal resources like soil microbial biomass. Mixed plant communities are often associated with higher microbial biomass than monocultures. Therefore, top-down control is expected to be higher in soil food webs of mixed plant communities. Moreover, higher predator densities can increase the suppression of prey, which can induce interactive effects between predator densities and plant community composition on prey populations. Here, we tested the effects of predator density (predatory mites) on prey populations (Collembola) in monoculture and mixed plant communities. We hypothesized that top-down control would increase with predator density but only in the mixed plant community. Our results revealed two contrasting patterns of top-down control: stronger top-down control of prey communities in the mixed plant community, but weaker top-down control in plant monocultures in high predator density treatments. As expected, higher microbial community biomass in the mixed plant community sustained sufficiently high prey populations to support high predator density. Our results highlight the roles of plant community composition and predator densities in regulating top-down control of prey in soil food webs.
Project description:Host-associated bacterial communities have received limited attention in polar habitats, but are likely to represent distinct nutrient-rich niches compared to the surrounding environment. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are a super-abundant species with a circumpolar distribution, and the krill microbiome may make a substantial contribution to marine bacterial diversity in the Southern Ocean. We used high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize bacterial diversity in seawater and krill tissue samples from four locations south of the Kerguelen Plateau, one of the most productive regions in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean. Krill-associated bacterial communities were distinct from those of the surrounding seawater, with different communities inhabiting the moults, digestive tract and faecal pellets, including several phyla not detected in the surrounding seawater. Digestive tissues from many individuals contained a potential gut symbiont (order: Mycoplasmoidales) shown to improve survival on a low quality diet in other crustaceans. Antarctic krill swarms thus influence Southern Ocean microbial communities not only through top-down grazing of eukaryotic cells and release of nutrients into the water column, but also by transporting distinct microbial assemblages horizontally via migration and vertically via sinking faecal pellets and moulted exuviae. Changes to Antarctic krill demographics or distribution through fishing pressure or climate-induced range shifts will also influence the composition and dispersal of Southern Ocean microbial communities.
Project description:A survey was carried out on the microbial community of 20 groundwater samples (4 low and 16 high arsenic groundwater) and 19 sediments from three boreholes (two high arsenic and one low arsenic boreholes) in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia, using the 454 pyrosequencing approach. A total of 233,704 sequence reads were obtained and classified into 12-267 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Groundwater and sediment samples were divided into low and high arsenic groups based on measured geochemical parameters and microbial communities, by hierarchical clustering and principal coordinates analysis. Richness and diversity of the microbial communities in high arsenic sediments are higher than those in high arsenic groundwater. Microbial community structure was significantly different either between low and high arsenic samples or between groundwater and sediments. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter and Alishewanella were the top four genera in high arsenic groundwater, while Thiobacillus, Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga, Enterobacteriaceae, Sulfuricurvum and Arthrobacter dominated high arsenic sediments. Archaeal sequences in high arsenic groundwater were mostly related to methanogens. Biota-environment matching and co-inertia analyses showed that arsenic, total organic carbon, SO4(2-), SO4(2-)/total sulfur ratio, and Fe(2+) were important environmental factors shaping the observed microbial communities. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in high arsenic groundwater aquifers and emphasize the potential importance of microbes in arsenic transformation in the Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia.
Project description:Patterns of spatial positioning of individuals within microbial communities are often critical to community function. However, understanding patterning in natural communities is hampered by the multitude of cell-cell and cell-environment interactions as well as environmental variability. Here, through simulations and experiments on communities in defined environments, we examined how ecological interactions between two distinct partners impacted community patterning. We found that in strong cooperation with spatially localized large fitness benefits to both partners, a unique pattern is generated: partners spatially intermixed by appearing successively on top of each other, insensitive to initial conditions and interaction dynamics. Intermixing was experimentally observed in two obligatory cooperative systems: an engineered yeast community cooperating through metabolite-exchanges and a methane-producing community cooperating through redox-coupling. Even in simulated communities consisting of several species, most of the strongly-cooperating pairs appeared intermixed. Thus, when ecological interactions are the major patterning force, strong cooperation leads to partner intermixing.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00230.001.
Project description:Understanding and quantifying the effects of environmental factors influencing the variation of abundance and diversity of microbial communities was a key theme of ecology. For microbial communities, there were two factors proposed in explaining the variation in current theory, which were contemporary environmental heterogeneity and historical events. Here, we report a study to profile soil microbial structure, which infers functional roles of microbial communities, along the latitudinal gradient from the north to the south in China mainland, aiming to explore potential microbial responses to external condition, especially for global climate changes via a strategy of space-for-time substitution. Using a microarray-based metagenomics tool named GeoChip 5.0, we showed that microbial communities were distinct for most but not all of the sites. Using substantial statistical analyses, exploring the dominant factor in influencing the soil microbial communities along the latitudinal gradient. Substantial variations were apparent in nutrient cycling genes, but they were in line with the functional roles of these genes. 300 samples were collected from 30 sites along the latitudinal gradient, with 10 replicates in every site