Project description:BACKGROUND: The Amazonian rainforest is predicted to suffer from ongoing environmental changes. Despite the need to evaluate the impact of such changes on tree genetic diversity, we almost entirely lack genomic resources. RESULTS: In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of four tropical tree species (Carapa guianensis, Eperua falcata, Symphonia globulifera and Virola michelii) with contrasting ecological features, belonging to four widespread botanical families (respectively Meliaceae, Fabaceae, Clusiaceae and Myristicaceae). We sequenced cDNA libraries from three organs (leaves, stems, and roots) using 454 pyrosequencing. We have developed an R and bioperl-based bioinformatic procedure for de novo assembly, gene functional annotation and marker discovery. Mismatch identification takes into account single-base quality values as well as the likelihood of false variants as a function of contig depth and number of sequenced chromosomes. Between 17103 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 23390 (for Eperua falcata) contigs were assembled. Organs varied in the numbers of unigenes they apparently express, with higher number in roots. Patterns of gene expression were similar across species, with metabolism of aromatic compounds standing out as an overrepresented gene function. Transcripts corresponding to several gene functions were found to be over- or underrepresented in each organ. We identified between 4434 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 9076 (for Virola surinamensis) well-supported mismatches. The resulting overall mismatch density was comprised between 0.89 (S. globulifera) and 1.05 (V. surinamensis) mismatches/100 bp in variation-containing contigs. CONCLUSION: The relative representation of gene functions in the four transcriptomes suggests that secondary metabolism may be particularly important in tropical trees. The differential representation of transcripts among tissues suggests differential gene expression, which opens the way to functional studies in these non-model, ecologically important species. We found substantial amounts of mismatches in the four species. These newly identified putative variants are a first step towards acquiring much needed genomic resources for tropical tree species.
Project description:Understanding the history of forests and their species' demographic responses to past disturbances is important for predicting impacts of future environmental changes. Tropical rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian region in Central Africa are believed to have survived the Pleistocene glacial periods in a few major refugia, essentially centred on mountainous regions close to the Atlantic Ocean. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the phylogeographic structure of a widespread, ancient rainforest tree species, Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae), using plastid DNA sequences (chloroplast DNA [cpDNA], psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs). SSRs identified four gene pools located in Benin, West Cameroon, South Cameroon and Gabon, and São Tomé. This structure was also apparent at cpDNA. Approximate Bayesian Computation detected recent bottlenecks approximately dated to the last glacial maximum in Benin, West Cameroon and São Tomé, and an older bottleneck in South Cameroon and Gabon, suggesting a genetic effect of Pleistocene cycles of forest contraction. CpDNA haplotype distribution indicated wide-ranging long-term persistence of S. globulifera both inside and outside of postulated forest refugia. Pollen flow was four times greater than that of seed in South Cameroon and Gabon, which probably enabled rapid population recovery after bottlenecks. Furthermore, our study suggested ecotypic differentiation-coastal or swamp vs terra firme-in S. globulifera. Comparison with other tree phylogeographic studies in Central Africa highlighted the relevance of species-specific responses to environmental change in forest trees.
Project description:Endofungal bacteria are widespread within the phylum Mucoromycota, and these include Burkholderiaceae-related endobacteria (BRE). However, the prevalence of BRE in Mortierellomycotinan fungi and their phylogenetic divergence remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of BRE in diverse species of Mortierella. We surveyed 238 isolates of Mortierella spp. mainly obtained in Japan that were phylogenetically classified into 59 species. BRE were found in 53 isolates consisting of 22 species of Mortierella. Among them, 20 species of Mortierella were newly reported as the fungal hosts of BRE. BRE in a Glomeribacter-Mycoavidus clade in the family Burkholderiaceae were separated phylogenetically into three groups. These groups consisted of a group containing Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which is known to be associated with M. elongata, and two other newly distinguishable groups. Our results demonstrated that BRE were harbored by many species of Mortierella and those that associated with isolates of Mortierella spp. were more phylogenetically divergent than previously reported.
Project description:Mortierella sp. has been known to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as GLA and AA under normal growth medium conditions. Similarly, under the stress condition, this fungus produces EPA and DHA in their mycelial biomass. Among the 67 soil samples screened from the Western Ghats of India, 11 Mortierella isolates showed the presence of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid, mainly GLA, AA, EPA, and DHA in starch, yeast-extract medium. Nile red and TTC strains were used for screening their qualitative oleaginesity. Among the representative isolates, when Mortierella sp. is grown in a fat-producing basal medium, a maximum lipid content of 42.0 ± 1.32% in its mycelia, 6.72 ± 0.5% EPA, and 4.09 ± 0.1% DHA was obtained. To understand the Mortierella sp. CFR-GV15, to the species level, its morphology was seen under the light microscope and scanning electron microscope, respectively. These microscopic observations showed that isolate Mortierella sp. CFR-GV15 produced coenocytic hyphae. Later on, its 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed phylogenetically to 18S rRNA and ITS1 and ITS4 sequences of related fungi. This newly isolated Mortierella alpina CFR-GV15 was found to be promising culture for the development of an economical method for commercial production of omega-3 fatty acid for food and therapeutical application.
Project description:In ecology, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have a high bioactive and signaling potential. VOCs are not only metabolic products, but are also relevant in microbial cross talk and plant interaction. Here, we report the first large-scale VOC study of 13 different species of <i>Mortierella sensu lato (s.</i><i>l.</i>) isolated from a range of different alpine environments. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) was applied for a rapid, high-throughput and non-invasive VOC fingerprinting of 72 <i>Mortierella s.</i><i>l.</i> isolates growing under standardized conditions. Overall, we detected 139 mass peaks in the headspaces of all 13 <i>Mortierella s.</i><i>l.</i> species studied here. Thus, <i>Mortierella</i><i>s.</i><i>l.</i> species generally produce a high number of different VOCs. <i>Mortierella</i> species could clearly be discriminated based on their volatilomes, even if only high-concentration mass peaks were considered. The volatilomes were partially phylogenetically conserved. There were no VOCs produced by only one species, but the relative concentrations of VOCs differed between species. From a univariate perspective, we detected mass peaks with distinctively high concentrations in single species. Here, we provide initial evidence that VOCs may provide a competitive advantage and modulate <i>Mortierella s.</i><i>l.</i> species distribution on a global scale.
Project description:Three new fungal species of the genus Mortierella, Mortierella zychae, Mortierella ambigua, and Mortierella indohii, have been reported in Korea. The fungi were encountered during a study on the fungal community of soil samples collected from different locations in Korea. The species were identified based on molecular and morphological analyses. This study presents detailed descriptions of the morphological observations and molecular phylogenetic analysis of these three fungi. All three species were found to be sensitive to triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. M. zychae demonstrated the highest intensity of mycelial staining, indicating that this species has the highest potential to produce arachidonic acid of the three species. The staining results indicated that the newly recorded species could potentially be useful for arachidonic acid production.