Project description:More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids. S. lydicus 103 encodes acyl-CoA thioesterase II that takes part in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and harbors the complete biosynthesis pathways of lysine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and isoleucine. Furthermore, a total of 27 putative gene clusters have been predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism, including biosynthesis of streptolydigin, erythromycin, mannopeptimycin, ectoine and desferrioxamine B. Comparative genome analysis of S. lydicus 103 will help us deeply understand its metabolic pathways, which is essential for enhancing the antibiotic production through metabolic engineering.
Project description:Streptomyces lydicus A02 is used by industry because it has a higher natamycin-producing capacity than the reference strain S. natalensis ATCC 27448. We sequenced the complete genome of A02 using next-generation sequencing platforms, and to achieve better sequence coverage and genome assembly, we utilized single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. The assembled genome comprises a 9,307,519-bp linear chromosome with a GC content of 70.67%, and contained 8,888 predicted genes. Comparative genomics and natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) analysis showed that BGC are highly conserved among evolutionarily diverse strains, and they also shared closer genome evolution compared with other Streptomyces species. Forty gene clusters were predicted to involve in the secondary metabolism of A02, and it was richly displayed in two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) in the genome, indicating a complex regulatory systems and high diversity of metabolites. Disruption of the phoP gene of the phoR-phoP TCS and nsdA gene confirmed phosphate sensitivity and global negative regulation of natamycin production. The genome sequence and analyses presented in this study provide an important molecular basis for research on natamycin production in Streptomyces, which could facilitate rational genome modification to improve the industrial use of A02.
Project description:Two genes of the streptolydigin gene cluster in Streptomyces lydicus cluster encode putative family 16 glycoside hydrolases. Both genes are expressed when streptolydigin is produced. Inactivation of these genes affects streptolydigin production when the microorganism is grown in minimal medium containing either glycerol or d-glucans as carbon source. Streptolydigin yields in S.?lydicus were increased by overexpression of either slgC1 or slgC2.
Project description:Due to the adverse effect on the environment caused by excessive use of chemical fertilizers, the development of sustainable agriculture attracts a growing demand of biological based fertilizers composed of living microorganisms. In this study, an Actinobacteria Streptomyces lydicus M01 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Pyrus calleryana. This strain effectively promoted the plant growth and suppressed a foliar disease caused by Alternaria alternata on cucumbers. S. lydicus M01 exhibited growth promoting characteristics such as phosphate solubilization, IAA secretion, siderophore and ACC deaminase production. Through Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS gene of the soil microbes, we found that the application of S. lydicus M01 altered the composition of the microbial community by promoting beneficial groups, including bacteria genera Pseudarthrobacter, Sphingomonas, Rhodanobacter, and Pseudomonas, fungi genera Fusicolla, Humicola, Solicoccozyma, and Paraphaeosphaeria. Most of these bacteria and eukaryotes exhibit positive effects on growth promotion, such as nutrient accumulation, auxin secretion, abiotic stress alleviation, biological control, or bioremediation. Furthermore, studies on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and antioxidants of cucumber leaves revealed that S. lydicus M01 treatment reduced the ROS accumulation and increased the activities of antioxidases related with ROS scavenging, which indicated an enhanced disease resistance of cucumbers under biotic stress. Thus, our results suggest that the application of S. lydicus M01 can systemically affect plant microbiome interactions and represent a promising sustainable solution to improve agricultural production instead of chemical fertilizers.
Project description:A previously undescribed plant-microbe interaction between a root-colonizing Streptomyces species, S. lydicus WYEC108, and the legume Pisum sativum is described. The interaction is potentially of great importance to the health and growth in nature of this nodulating legume. The root-colonizing soil actinomycete S. lydicus WYEC108 influences pea root nodulation by increasing root nodulation frequency, possibly at the level of infection by Rhizobium spp. S. lydicus also colonizes and then sporulates within the surface cell layers of the nodules. Colonization leads to an increase in the average size of the nodules that form and improves the vigor of bacteroids within the nodules by enhancing nodular assimilation of iron and possibly other soil nutrients. Bacteroid accumulation of the carbon storage polymer, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, is reduced in colonized nodules. Root nodules of peas taken from agricultural fields in the Palouse hills of northern Idaho were also found to be colonized by actinomycete hyphae. We hypothesize that root and nodule colonization is one of several mechanisms by which Streptomyces acts as a naturally occurring plant growth-promoting bacterium in pea and possibly other leguminous plants.
Project description:Streptomyces lydicus NRRL2433 and S. spectabilis NRRL2494 produce two inhibitors of bacterial RNA polymerase: the 3-acyltetramic acid streptolydigin and the naphthalenic ansamycin streptovaricin, respectively. Both strains are highly resistant to their own antibiotics. Independent expression of the S. lydicus and S. spectabilis rpoB and rpoC genes, encoding the beta- and beta'-subunits of RNA polymerase, respectively, in S. albus showed that resistance is mediated by rpoB, with no effect of rpoC. Within the beta-subunit, resistance was confined to an amino acid region harboring the "rif region." Comparison of the beta-subunit amino acid sequences of this region from the producer strains and those of other streptomycetes and site-directed mutagenesis of specific differential residues located in it (L485 and D486 in S. lydicus and N474 and S475 in S. spectabilis) showed their involvement in streptolydigin and streptovaricin resistance. Other amino acids located close to the "Stl pocket" in the S. lydicus beta-subunit (L555, F593, and M594) were also found to exert influence on streptolydigin resistance.
Project description:Biosynthesis of the hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptide antibiotic streptolydigin, 3-methylaspartate, is utilized as precursor of the tetramic acid moiety. The three genes from the Streptomyces lydicus streptolydigin gene cluster slgE1-slgE2-slgE3 are involved in 3-methylaspartate supply. SlgE3, a ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase, is responsible for the biosynthesis of glutamate from glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate. In addition to slgE3, housekeeping NADPH- and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase genes have been identified in S. lydicus. The expression of slgE3 is increased up to 9-fold at the onset of streptolydigin biosynthesis and later decreases to ?2-fold over the basal level. In contrast, the expression of housekeeping glutamate synthases decreases when streptolydigin begins to be synthesized. SlgE1 and SlgE2 are the two subunits of a glutamate mutase that would convert glutamate into 3-methylaspartate. Deletion of slgE1-slgE2 led to the production of two compounds containing a lateral side chain derived from glutamate instead of 3-methylaspartate. Expression of this glutamate mutase also reaches a peak increase of up to 5.5-fold coinciding with the onset of antibiotic production. Overexpression of either slgE3 or slgE1-slgE2 in S. lydicus led to an increase in the yield of streptolydigin.