Project description:Recently, we reported that Rhus coriaria exhibits anticancer activities by promoting cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death of the metastatic triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effect of Rhus coriaria on the migration, invasion, metastasis and tumor growth of TNBC cells. Our current study revealed that non-cytotoxic concentrations of Rhus coriaria significantly inhibited migration and invasion, blocked adhesion to fibronectin and downregulated MMP-9 and prostaglandin E2 (PgE2). Not only did Rhus coriaria decrease their adhesion to HUVECs and to lung microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-L) cells, but it also inhibited the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231 cells through TNF-?-activated HUVECs. Furthermore, we found that Rhus coriaria inhibited angiogenesis, reduced VEGF production in both MDA-MB-231 and HUVECs and downregulated the inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8. The underlying mechanism for Rhus coriaria effects appears to be through inhibiting NF?B, STAT3 and nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Most importantly, by using chick embryo tumor growth assay, we showed that Rhus coriaria suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The results described in the present study identify Rhus coriaria as a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate that modulate triple negative breast cancer growth and metastasis.
Project description:Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.
Project description:<i>Rhus coriaria</i> (sumac) is a fruit grown worldwide for its culinary use as a flavoring agent and for its health benefits. Despite several studies on <i>R. coriaria</i> non-volatile metabolites, much less is recognized concerning volatile composition within that genus. In an effort to expand on flavor profile sumac and its food products, we report on volatile profiling from three accessions of different origins including Palestine, Jordan and Egypt in addition to its cold tea and post roasting via headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Under optimized conditions, 74 volatile components were identified belonging to alcohols, aromatics, esters, ethers, furan/aldehyde, hydrocarbons, ketones, monoterpenes, oxides and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Major identified components included ?-pinene, naphthalene and o-cymene in Palestinian, Jordanian and Egyptian sumac, respectively. Whereas sesquiterpenes amounted for the major volatile class in fresh <i>R. coriaria</i> at ca. 40-58%, furan/aldehydes were the predominant classes in roasted fruits (58%). Volatile abundance data was further subjected to multivariate data analyses revealing furfural and nonanal enrichment in roasted compared to fresh fruits and their cold tea preparation. Seeds exhibited no aroma components which justified their removal in <i>R. coriaria</i> prior to its use as a food flavor. Such knowledge is expected to be the key for understanding the olfactory and taste properties of <i>R. coriaria</i> and its several food products.
Project description:<i>Caesalpinia coriaria</i> (<i>C. coriaria</i>), also named cascalote, has been known traditionally in México for having cicatrizing and inflammatory properties. Phytochemical reports on <i>Caesalpinia</i> species have identified a high content of phenolic compounds and shown antineoplastic effects against cancer cells. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the active compounds of a water:acetone:ethanol (WAE) extract of <i>C. coriaria</i> pods and characterize their cytotoxic effect and cell death induction in different cancer cell lines. The compounds isolated and identified by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis were stigmasterol, ethyl gallate and gallic acid. Cytotoxic assays on cancer cells showed different ranges of activities. A differential effect on cell cycle progression was observed by flow cytometry. In particular, ethyl gallate and tannic acid induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and showed interesting effect on microtubule stabilization in Hep3B cells observed by immunofluorescence. The induction of apoptosis was characterized by morphological characteristic changes, and was supported by increases in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression and activation of caspase 3/7. This work constitutes the first phytochemical and cytotoxic study of <i>C. coriaria</i> and showed the action of its phenolic constituents on cell cycle, cell death and microtubules organization.
Project description:Comprehensive scientific data provide evidence that isolated phytochemicals or whole plant foods may beneficially modify carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncostatic activities of <i>Rhus coriaria</i> L. (sumac) using animal models (rat and mouse), and cell lines of breast carcinoma. <i>R. coriaria</i> (as a powder) was administered through the diet at two concentrations (low dose: 0.1% (<i>w</i>/<i>w</i>) and high dose: 1 % (<i>w</i>/<i>w</i>)) for the duration of the experiment in a syngeneic 4T1 mouse and chemically-induced rat mammary carcinoma models. After autopsy, histopathological and molecular analyses of tumor samples in rodents were performed. Moreover, in vitro analyses using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were conducted. The dominant metabolites present in tested <i>R. coriaria</i> methanolic extract were glycosides of gallic acid (possible gallotannins). In the mouse model, <i>R. coriaria</i> at a higher dose (1%) significantly decreased tumor volume by 27% when compared to controls. In addition, treated tumors showed significant dose-dependent decrease in mitotic activity index by 36.5% and 51% in comparison with the control group. In the chemoprevention study using rats, <i>R. coriaria</i> at a higher dose significantly reduced the tumor incidence by 20% and in lower dose non-significantly reduced tumor frequency by 29% when compared to controls. Evaluations of the mechanism of oncostatic action using valid clinical markers demonstrated several positive alterations in rat tumor cells after the treatment with <i>R. coriaria</i>. In this regard, histopathological analysis of treated tumor specimens showed robust dose-dependent decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas by 66% and 73% compared to controls. In treated rat carcinomas, we found significant caspase-3, Bax, and Bax/Bcl-2 expression increases; on the other side, a significant down-regulation of Bcl-2, Ki67, CD24, ALDH1, and EpCam expressions and MDA levels. When compared to control specimens, evaluation of epigenetic alterations in rat tumor cells in vivo showed significant dose-dependent decrease in lysine methylation status of H3K4m3 and H3K9m3 and dose-dependent increase in lysine acetylation in H4K16ac levels (H4K20m3 was not changed) in treated groups. However, only in lower dose of sumac were significant decreases in the expression of oncogenic miR210 and increase of tumor-suppressive miR145 (miR21, miR22, and miR155 were not changed) observed. Finally, only in lower sumac dose, significant decreases in methylation status of three out of five gene promoters-<i>ATM</i>, <i>PTEN</i>, and <i>TIMP3</i> (<i>PITX2</i> and <i>RASSF1</i> promoters were not changed). In vitro evaluations using methanolic extract of <i>R. coriaria</i> showed significant anticancer efficacy in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (using Resazurin, cell cycle, annexin V/PI, caspase-3/7, Bcl-2, PARP, and mitochondrial membrane potential analyses). In conclusion, sumac demonstrated significant oncostatic activities in rodent models of breast carcinoma that were validated by mechanistic studies in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is a small plant widely diffused in the Mediterranean region. Its fruit are often consumed as a spice but are also present in traditional medicine of several countries. Recently, interest in this plant has increased and many scientific works reported its beneficial effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Plant extracts can be successfully used against ultraviolet rays, which are able to reach and damage the human skin; however, sumac extracts were never applied to this usage. Thus, in this study, we used a macerated ethanol extract of Rhus coriaria L. dried fruit (mERC) to demonstrate its preventive role against the damage induced by ultraviolet-A rays (UV-A) on microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). In vitro effects of the extract pre-treatment and UV-A exposure were evaluated in detail. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cellular antioxidant activity measurement. Genoprotective effects of mERC were investigated as well. Our findings indicate that the extract acts as a cell cycle inhibitor or apoptosis inducer, according to the level of damage. The present work provides new insights into the usage of Rhus coriaria extracts against skin injuries.
Project description:Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of Rhus coriaria on three breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that Rhus coriaria ethanolic extract (RCE) inhibits the proliferation of these cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. RCE induced senescence and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. These changes were concomitant with upregulation of p21, downregulation of cyclin D1, p27, PCNA, c-myc, phospho-RB and expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. No proliferative recovery was detected after RCE removal. Annexin V staining and PARP cleavage analysis revealed a minimal induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of autophagic vacuoles in RCE-treated cells. Interestingly, blocking autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) reduced RCE-induced cell death and senescence. RCE was also found to activate p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways which coincided with induction of autophagy. Furthermore, we found that while both autophagy inhibitors abolished p38 phosphorylation, only CQ led to significant decrease in pERK1/2. Finally, RCE induced DNA damage and reduced mutant p53, two events that preceded autophagy. Our findings provide strong evidence that R. coriaria possesses strong anti-breast cancer activity through induction of senescence and autophagic cell death, making it a promising alternative or adjunct therapeutic candidate against breast cancer.
Project description:The conventional reproduction methods are not efficient for regeneration of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.). The purpose of this work was to study the micropropagation of R. coriaria using lateral buds as explant in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentrations of plant growth regulator (PGRs). Four concentrations of Benzylaminopurine (BAP) in combination with three concentrations of indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1.0 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3) were tested for establishment and shoot multiplication. For root induction, IBA was used at four levels combined with 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/L of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in full and half strength of MS medium. BAP at 2 mg/L with 1 mg/L IBA was best, with 88.88% of establishment. The highest shoot proliferation (12.30?±?0.30) was obtained in medium fortified with 2 mg/L BAP plus 0.5 mg/L IBA and the highest shoot length (8.50 cm) was obtained at 3 mg/L BAP plus 1 mg/L IBA. The highest rooting (100%) was observed in 1/2-strength MS medium containing 1 mg/L IBA with 0.5 mg/L NAA. In conclusion, an efficient protocol with high rate of proliferation and rooting is described for R. coriaria, which can be used in massive propagation.
Project description:The present paper reports the GC-HS-SPME analysis of volatile emission and GC-MS analysis of chemical composition of essential oil of <i>R. coriaria</i> fruits of eight different samples of <i>R. coriaria</i> L. fruits ("sumac" folk name), collected from Jordanian agricultural field and the local market. The analyses show an important variability among the Sumac samples probably due to the origin, cultivation, harvesting period, drying, and conservation of the plant material. The main class of component present in all samples was monoterpenes (43.1 to 72.9%), except for one sample which evidenced a high percentage of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.5%). The oxygenated monoterpenes provided a contribution to total class of monoterpenes ranging from 10.1 to 24.3%. A few samples were rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons. Regarding the single components present in all the volatile emissions, β-caryophyllene was the main compound in most of the analyzed samples, varying from 34.6% to 7.9%. Only two samples were characterized by α-pinene as the main constituent (42.2 and 40.8% respectively). Essential oils were collected using hydro-distillation method. Furfural was the main constituent in almost all the analyzed EOs (4.9 to 48.1%), except in one of them, where β-caryophyllene was the most abundant one. β-caryophyllene ranged from 1.2 to 10.6%. Oxygenated monoterpenes like carvone and carvacrol ranged from 3.2-9.1% and 1.0-7.7% respectively. Cembrene was present in good amount in EO samples EO-2 to EO-8. The antioxidant capacities of the fruit essential oils from <i>R. coriaria</i> were assessed using spectrophotometry to measure free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching (BCB). The essential oils from the fruits of the different samples of <i>R. coriaria</i> exhibited the MIC value ranging from 32.8 to 131.25 µg/mL against <i>S. aureus ATCC 6538</i> and 131.25 to 262.5 µg/mL against <i>E. coli ATCC 8739</i>. The MIC values of ciprofloxacin were 0.59 and 2.34 µg/mL against <i>S. aureus ATCC 6538</i> and <i>E. coli ATCC 8739</i>, respectively.
Project description:Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) and Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria) have been documented to have various pharmacologic activities. The current study assessed the in vitro as well as in vivo inhibitory efficacy of a methanolic extract of B. vulgaris (MEBV) and an acetone extract of R. coriaria (AERC) on six species of piroplasm parasites. The drug-exposure viability assay was tested on three different cell lines, namely mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Qualitative phytochemical estimation revealed that both extracts containing alkaloid, tannin, saponins and terpenoids and significant amounts of flavonoids and polyphenols. The GC-MS analysis of MEBV and AERC revealed the existence of 27 and 20 phytochemical compounds, respectively. MEBV and AERC restricted the multiplication of Babesia (B.) bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and Theileria (T.) equi at the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.84 ± 0.2, 0.81 ± 0.3, 4.1 ± 0.9, 0.35 ± 0.1 and 0.68 ± 0.1 µg/mL and 85.7 ± 3.1, 60 ± 8.5, 90 ± 3.7, 85.7 ± 2.1 and 78 ± 2.1 µg/mL, respectively. In the cytotoxicity assay, MEBV and AERC inhibited MDBK, NIH/3T3 and HFF cells with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of 695.7 ± 24.9, 931 ± 44.9, ?1500 µg/mL and 737.7 ± 17.4, ?1500 and ?1500 µg/mL, respectively. The experiments in mice showed that MEBV and AERC prohibited B. microti multiplication at 150 mg/kg by 66.7% and 70%, respectively. These results indicate the prospects of these extracts as drug candidates for piroplasmosis treatment following additional studies in some clinical cases.