Project description:Recently, we reported that Rhus coriaria exhibits anticancer activities by promoting cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death of the metastatic triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effect of Rhus coriaria on the migration, invasion, metastasis and tumor growth of TNBC cells. Our current study revealed that non-cytotoxic concentrations of Rhus coriaria significantly inhibited migration and invasion, blocked adhesion to fibronectin and downregulated MMP-9 and prostaglandin E2 (PgE2). Not only did Rhus coriaria decrease their adhesion to HUVECs and to lung microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-L) cells, but it also inhibited the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231 cells through TNF-?-activated HUVECs. Furthermore, we found that Rhus coriaria inhibited angiogenesis, reduced VEGF production in both MDA-MB-231 and HUVECs and downregulated the inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8. The underlying mechanism for Rhus coriaria effects appears to be through inhibiting NF?B, STAT3 and nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Most importantly, by using chick embryo tumor growth assay, we showed that Rhus coriaria suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The results described in the present study identify Rhus coriaria as a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate that modulate triple negative breast cancer growth and metastasis.
Project description:Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France), New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase), dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator), and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes) in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K) and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA) in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.
Project description:Rhus coriaria (sumac) is a fruit grown worldwide for its culinary use as a flavoring agent and for its health benefits. Despite several studies on R. coriaria non-volatile metabolites, much less is recognized concerning volatile composition within that genus. In an effort to expand on flavor profile sumac and its food products, we report on volatile profiling from three accessions of different origins including Palestine, Jordan and Egypt in addition to its cold tea and post roasting via headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Under optimized conditions, 74 volatile components were identified belonging to alcohols, aromatics, esters, ethers, furan/aldehyde, hydrocarbons, ketones, monoterpenes, oxides and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Major identified components included ?-pinene, naphthalene and o-cymene in Palestinian, Jordanian and Egyptian sumac, respectively. Whereas sesquiterpenes amounted for the major volatile class in fresh R. coriaria at ca. 40-58%, furan/aldehydes were the predominant classes in roasted fruits (58%). Volatile abundance data was further subjected to multivariate data analyses revealing furfural and nonanal enrichment in roasted compared to fresh fruits and their cold tea preparation. Seeds exhibited no aroma components which justified their removal in R. coriaria prior to its use as a food flavor. Such knowledge is expected to be the key for understanding the olfactory and taste properties of R. coriaria and its several food products.
Project description:<i>Caesalpinia coriaria</i> (<i>C. coriaria</i>), also named cascalote, has been known traditionally in México for having cicatrizing and inflammatory properties. Phytochemical reports on <i>Caesalpinia</i> species have identified a high content of phenolic compounds and shown antineoplastic effects against cancer cells. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the active compounds of a water:acetone:ethanol (WAE) extract of <i>C. coriaria</i> pods and characterize their cytotoxic effect and cell death induction in different cancer cell lines. The compounds isolated and identified by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis were stigmasterol, ethyl gallate and gallic acid. Cytotoxic assays on cancer cells showed different ranges of activities. A differential effect on cell cycle progression was observed by flow cytometry. In particular, ethyl gallate and tannic acid induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and showed interesting effect on microtubule stabilization in Hep3B cells observed by immunofluorescence. The induction of apoptosis was characterized by morphological characteristic changes, and was supported by increases in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression and activation of caspase 3/7. This work constitutes the first phytochemical and cytotoxic study of <i>C. coriaria</i> and showed the action of its phenolic constituents on cell cycle, cell death and microtubules organization.
Project description:Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is a small plant widely diffused in the Mediterranean region. Its fruit are often consumed as a spice but are also present in traditional medicine of several countries. Recently, interest in this plant has increased and many scientific works reported its beneficial effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Plant extracts can be successfully used against ultraviolet rays, which are able to reach and damage the human skin; however, sumac extracts were never applied to this usage. Thus, in this study, we used a macerated ethanol extract of Rhus coriaria L. dried fruit (mERC) to demonstrate its preventive role against the damage induced by ultraviolet-A rays (UV-A) on microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). In vitro effects of the extract pre-treatment and UV-A exposure were evaluated in detail. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cellular antioxidant activity measurement. Genoprotective effects of mERC were investigated as well. Our findings indicate that the extract acts as a cell cycle inhibitor or apoptosis inducer, according to the level of damage. The present work provides new insights into the usage of Rhus coriaria extracts against skin injuries.
Project description:Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of Rhus coriaria on three breast cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that Rhus coriaria ethanolic extract (RCE) inhibits the proliferation of these cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. RCE induced senescence and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. These changes were concomitant with upregulation of p21, downregulation of cyclin D1, p27, PCNA, c-myc, phospho-RB and expression of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity. No proliferative recovery was detected after RCE removal. Annexin V staining and PARP cleavage analysis revealed a minimal induction of apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of autophagic vacuoles in RCE-treated cells. Interestingly, blocking autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) reduced RCE-induced cell death and senescence. RCE was also found to activate p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways which coincided with induction of autophagy. Furthermore, we found that while both autophagy inhibitors abolished p38 phosphorylation, only CQ led to significant decrease in pERK1/2. Finally, RCE induced DNA damage and reduced mutant p53, two events that preceded autophagy. Our findings provide strong evidence that R. coriaria possesses strong anti-breast cancer activity through induction of senescence and autophagic cell death, making it a promising alternative or adjunct therapeutic candidate against breast cancer.
Project description:Berberis vulgaris (B. vulgaris) and Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria) have been documented to have various pharmacologic activities. The current study assessed the in vitro as well as in vivo inhibitory efficacy of a methanolic extract of B. vulgaris (MEBV) and an acetone extract of R. coriaria (AERC) on six species of piroplasm parasites. The drug-exposure viability assay was tested on three different cell lines, namely mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Qualitative phytochemical estimation revealed that both extracts containing alkaloid, tannin, saponins and terpenoids and significant amounts of flavonoids and polyphenols. The GC-MS analysis of MEBV and AERC revealed the existence of 27 and 20 phytochemical compounds, respectively. MEBV and AERC restricted the multiplication of Babesia (B.) bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and Theileria (T.) equi at the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.84 ± 0.2, 0.81 ± 0.3, 4.1 ± 0.9, 0.35 ± 0.1 and 0.68 ± 0.1 µg/mL and 85.7 ± 3.1, 60 ± 8.5, 90 ± 3.7, 85.7 ± 2.1 and 78 ± 2.1 µg/mL, respectively. In the cytotoxicity assay, MEBV and AERC inhibited MDBK, NIH/3T3 and HFF cells with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of 695.7 ± 24.9, 931 ± 44.9, ?1500 µg/mL and 737.7 ± 17.4, ?1500 and ?1500 µg/mL, respectively. The experiments in mice showed that MEBV and AERC prohibited B. microti multiplication at 150 mg/kg by 66.7% and 70%, respectively. These results indicate the prospects of these extracts as drug candidates for piroplasmosis treatment following additional studies in some clinical cases.
Project description:The repeated failures reported in cultivating some microbial lineages are a major challenge in microbial ecology and probably linked, in the case of Frankia microsymbionts to atypical patterns of auxotrophy. Comparative genomics of the so far uncultured cluster-2 Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1, with cultivated Frankiae has revealed genome reduction, but no obvious physiological impairments. A direct physiological assay on nodule tissues from Coriaria myrtifolia infected with a closely-related strain permitted the identification of a requirement for alkaline conditions. A high pH growth medium permitted the recovery of a slow-growing actinobacterium. The strain obtained, called BMG5.1, has short hyphae, produced diazovesicles in nitrogen-free media, and fulfilled Koch's postulates by inducing effective nodules on axenically grown Coriaria spp. and Datisca glomerata. Analysis of the draft genome confirmed its close proximity to the Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 genome with the absence of 38 genes (trehalose synthase, fumarylacetoacetase, etc) in BMG5.1 and the presence of 77 other genes (CRISPR, lanthionine synthase, glutathione synthetase, catalase, Na+/H+ antiporter, etc) not found in Dg1. A multi-gene phylogeny placed the two cluster-2 strains together at the root of the Frankia radiation.
Project description:Background and Purpose:Oxidative stress is involved in normal and pathological functioning of skeletal muscle. Protection of myoblasts from oxidative stress may improve muscle contraction and delay aging. Here we studied the effect of R. coriaria sumac fruit extract on human myoblasts and zebrafish embryos in conditions of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Study Design and Methods:Crude ethanolic 70% extract (CE) and its fractions was obtained from sumac fruits. The composition of sumac ethyl acetate EtOAc fraction was studied by 1H NMR. The viability of human myoblasts treated with CE and the EtOAc fraction was determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Oxidative stress, cell cycle and adhesion were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Results:The EtOAc fraction (IC50 2.57 µg/mL) had the highest antioxidant activity and exhibited the best protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It also restored cell adhesion. This effect was mediated by superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase. Pre-treatment of zebrafish embryos with low concentrations of the EtOAc fraction protected them from hydrogen peroxide-induced death in vivo. 1H NMR analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid in this fraction. Conclusion:Rhus coriaria extracts inhibited or slowed down the progress of skeletal muscle atrophy by decreasing oxidative stress via superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase-dependent mechanisms.