Project description:Lateral gene transfer (LGT) from bacterial Wolbachia endosymbionts has been detected in ~20% of arthropod and nematode genome sequencing projects. Many of these transfers are large and contain a substantial part of the Wolbachia genome.Here, we re-sequenced three D. ananassae genomes from Asia and the Pacific that contain large LGTs from Wolbachia. We find that multiple copies of the Wolbachia genome are transferred to the Drosophila nuclear genome in all three lines. In the D. ananassae line from Indonesia, the copies of Wolbachia DNA in the nuclear genome are nearly identical in size and sequence yielding an even coverage of mapped reads over the Wolbachia genome. In contrast, the D. ananassae lines from Hawaii and India show an uneven coverage of mapped reads over the Wolbachia genome suggesting that different parts of these LGTs are present in different copy numbers. In the Hawaii line, we find that this LGT is underrepresented in third instar larvae indicative of being heterochromatic. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes confirms that the LGT in the Hawaii line is heterochromatic and represents ~20% of the sequence on chromosome 4 (dot chromosome, Muller element F).This collection of related lines contain large lateral gene transfers composed of multiple Wolbachia genomes that constitute >2% of the D. ananassae genome (~5 Mbp) and partially explain the abnormally large size of chromosome 4 in D. ananassae.
Project description:Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont wAna, isolated from Drosophila ananassae and derived from Oxford Nanopore and Illumina sequencing. We anticipate that this will aid in Wolbachia comparative genomics and the assembly of D. ananassae specifically in regions containing extensive lateral gene transfer events.
Project description:Coevolution between Drosophila and its endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has many intriguing aspects. For example, Drosophila ananassae hosts two forms of W. pipientis genomes: One being the infectious bacterial genome and the other integrated into the host nuclear genome. Here, we characterize the infectious and integrated genomes of W. pipientis infecting D. ananassae (wAna), by genome sequencing 15 strains of D. ananassae that have either the infectious or integrated wAna genomes. Results indicate evolutionarily stable maternal transmission for the infectious wAna genome suggesting a relatively long-term coevolution with its host. In contrast, the integrated wAna genome showed pseudogene-like characteristics accumulating many variants that are predicted to have deleterious effects if present in an infectious bacterial genome. Phylogenomic analysis of sequence variation together with genotyping by polymerase chain reaction of large structural variations indicated several wAna variants among the eight infectious wAna genomes. In contrast, only a single wAna variant was found among the seven integrated wAna genomes examined in lines from Africa, south Asia, and south Pacific islands suggesting that the integration occurred once from a single infectious wAna genome and then spread geographically. Further analysis revealed that for all D. ananassae we examined with the integrated wAna genomes, the majority of the integrated wAna genomic regions is represented in at least two copies suggesting a double integration or single integration followed by an integrated genome duplication. The possible evolutionary mechanism underlying the widespread geographical presence of the duplicate integration of the wAna genome is an intriguing question remaining to be answered.
Project description:Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects , but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans [2, 3]. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare [4-7]. Here, we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila hosts (10-50 million years) over only about 14,000 years (5,000-27,000). Comparing 110 wRi-like genomes, we find ?0.02% divergence from the wRi variant that spread rapidly through California populations of D. simulans. The hosts include both globally invasive species (D. simulans, D. suzukii, and D. ananassae) and narrowly distributed Australian endemics (D. anomalata and D. pandora) . Phylogenetic analyses that include mtDNA genomes indicate introgressive transfer of wRi-like Wolbachia between closely related species D. ananassae, D. anomalata, and D. pandora but no horizontal transmission within species. Our analyses suggest D. ananassae as the Wolbachia source for the recent wRi invasion of D. simulans and D. suzukii as the source of Wolbachia in its sister species D. subpulchrella. Although six of these wRi-like variants cause strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, two cause no detectable reproductive effects, indicating that pervasive mutualistic effects [9, 10] complement the reproductive manipulations for which Wolbachia are best known. "Super spreader" variants like wRi may be particularly useful for controlling insect pests and vector-borne diseases with Wolbachia transinfections .
Project description:The Trace Archive is a repository for the raw, unanalyzed data generated by large-scale genome sequencing projects. The existence of this data offers scientists the possibility of discovering additional genomic sequences beyond those originally sequenced. In particular, if the source DNA for a sequencing project came from a species that was colonized by another organism, then the project may yield substantial amounts of genomic DNA, including near-complete genomes, from the symbiotic or parasitic organism.By searching the publicly available repository of DNA sequencing trace data, we discovered three new species of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis in three different species of fruit fly: Drosophila ananassae, D. simulans, and D. mojavensis. We extracted all sequences with partial matches to a previously sequenced Wolbachia strain and assembled those sequences using customized software. For one of the three new species, the data recovered were sufficient to produce an assembly that covers more than 95% of the genome; for a second species the data produce the equivalent of a 'light shotgun' sampling of the genome, covering an estimated 75-80% of the genome; and for the third species the data cover approximately 6-7% of the genome.The results of this study reveal an unexpected benefit of depositing raw data in a central genome sequence repository: new species can be discovered within this data. The differences between these three new Wolbachia genomes and the previously sequenced strain revealed numerous rearrangements and insertions within each lineage and hundreds of novel genes. The three new genomes, with annotation, have been deposited in GenBank.
Project description:Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, is being investigated as a vector control agent in several insect species. Along with the well known classical reproductive parasitism Wolbachia employs against its host to spread within the population, it is emerging that the bacteria can protect the host against pathogens and reduced pathogen transmission. Anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit malaria, have never been found to harbour Wolbachia in nature, and despite numerous transinfection attempts, no stable line has been developed. However recently, two strains of Wolbachia, wAlbB from Aedes albopictus, and wRi from Drosophila simulans were cultured in Anopheles gambiae Sua5B cells. These cell lines provides an amenable system to study Wolbachia-Anopheles interaction in the absence of a stable transinfected line. It has been proposed that the compromised vector competence of Wolbachia infected insects is due to an up regulation of the basal immune state. We therefore completed a genome wide expression profile of Wolbachia infected Anopheles, assessing both wAlbB and wRi infected cells in parallel against uninfected Sua5B cells. Overall design: Two strains of Wolbachia, wRi from Drosophila simulans and wAlbB from Aedes albopictus were transfered into Anopheles gambiae Sua5B cells via the shell vial technique. After over 30 passages, these Wolbachia infected cells lines were then compared, in parallel, to the original uninfected Sua5B cells using Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Here, we report genome assemblies for three strains of Wolbachia pipientis, assembled from unenriched, unfiltered long-read shotgun sequencing data of geographically distinct strains of Drosophila melanogaster Our simple methodology can be applied to long-read data sets of other Wolbachia-infected species with limited Wolbachia-host lateral gene transfers to produce complete assemblies for this important model symbiont.
Project description:The symbiotic Wolbachia are the most sophisticated mutualistic bacterium among all insect-associated microbiota. Wolbachia-insect relationship fluctuates from the simple facultative/parasitic to an obligate nutritional-mutualistic association as it was the case of the bedbug-Wolbachia from Cimexlectularius. Understanding this association may help in the control of associated arthropods. Genomic data have proven to be reliable tools in resolving some aspects of these symbiotic associations. Although, Wolbachia appear to be fastidious or uncultivated bacteria which strongly limited their study. Here we proposed Drosophila S2 cell line for the isolation and culture model to study Wolbachia strains. We therefore isolated and characterized a novel Wolbachia strain associated with the bedbug Cimexhemipterus, designated as wChem strain PL13, and proposed Wolbachiamassiliensis sp. nov. strain wChem-PL13 a type strain of this new species from new supergroup T. Phylogenetically, T-supergroup was close to F and S-supergroups from insects and D-supergroup from filarial nematodes. We determined the 1,291,339-bp genome of wChem-PL13, which was the smallest insect-associated Wolbachia genomes. Overall, the wChem genome shared 50% of protein coding genes with the other insect-associated facultative Wolbachia strains. These findings highlight the diversity of Wolbachia genotypes as well as the Wolbachia-host relationship among Cimicinae subfamily. The wChem provides folate and riboflavin vitamins on which the host depends, while the bacteria had a limited translation mechanism suggesting its strong dependence to its hosts. However, the clear-cut distinction between mutualism and parasitism of the wChem in C. hemipterus cannot be yet ruled out.
Project description:Heritable symbionts can modify a range of ecologically important host traits, including behavior. About half of all insect species are infected with maternally transmitted Wolbachia, a bacterial endosymbiont known to alter host reproduction, nutrient acquisition, and virus susceptibility. Here, we broadly test the hypothesis that Wolbachia modifies host behavior by assessing the effects of eight different Wolbachia strains on the temperature preference of six Drosophila melanogaster subgroup species. Four of the seven host genotypes infected with A-group Wolbachia strains (wRi in Drosophila simulans, wHa in D. simulans, wSh in Drosophila sechellia, and wTei in Drosophila teissieri) prefer significantly cooler temperatures relative to uninfected genotypes. Contrastingly, when infected with divergent B-group wMau, Drosophila mauritiana prefers a warmer temperature. For most strains, changes to host temperature preference do not alter Wolbachia titer. However, males infected with wSh and wTei tend to experience an increase in titer when shifted to a cooler temperature for 24?h, suggesting that Wolbachia-induced changes to host behavior may promote bacterial replication. Our results indicate that Wolbachia modifications to host temperature preference are likely widespread, which has important implications for insect thermoregulation and physiology. Understanding the fitness consequences of these Wolbachia effects is crucial for predicting evolutionary outcomes of host-symbiont interactions, including how Wolbachia spreads to become common.IMPORTANCE Microbes infect a diversity of species, influencing the performance and fitness of their hosts. Maternally transmitted Wolbachia bacteria infect most insects and other arthropods, making these bacteria some of the most common endosymbionts in nature. Despite their global prevalence, it remains mostly unknown how Wolbachia influence host physiology and behavior to proliferate. We demonstrate pervasive effects of Wolbachia on Drosophila temperature preference. Most hosts infected with A-group Wolbachia prefer cooler temperatures, whereas the one host species infected with divergent B-group Wolbachia prefers warmer temperatures, relative to uninfected genotypes. Changes to host temperature preference generally do not alter Wolbachia abundance in host tissues, but for some A-group strains, adult males have increased Wolbachia titer when shifted to a cooler temperature. This suggests that Wolbachia-induced changes to host behavior may promote bacterial replication. Our results help elucidate the impact of endosymbionts on their hosts amid the global Wolbachia pandemic.