Project description:Microcystin-Leucine Arginine causes cytotoxic effects in Sertoli Cells We used microarrays to analyze up-regulated and down-regulated genes to investigate the molecular mechanism associated with cytotoxic effects in Sertoli cells treated with MC-LR Overall design: Primary mouse Sertoli cells were isolated and cultured for 48 h, cells were then treated with MC-LR. Microarray technique was used to analyze differently expressed genes to understand the molecular mechanism associated with cytotoxicty induced with MC-LR.
Project description:Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) has over the last 10 years become the focus of increasing concern largely due to its rising incidence and high mortality rates worldwide. Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) have been reported to be carcinogenic but there are no data on the linkage between MC-LR and iCCA. We used microarrays to detail the change of gene expression in iCCA cells(huh28) treated with MC-LR. Overall design: Cells incubated in the absence or presence of 500 nM MC-LR for 24 h were harvested and total RNA was isolated immediately from 106 cells. The mRNA microarray analysis was performed by Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Project description:Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a potent toxin for Sertoli cells. However, the specific molecular mechanisms of MC-induced cytotoxicity still remain unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analyses of changes of miRNAs and mRNAs in Sertoli cells treated with MC-LR. Through computational approaches, we showed the pivotal roles of differentially expressed miRNAs that were associated with cell metabolism, cellular growth and proliferation, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction and cellular movement. Ingenuity Pathway Analyses (IPA) revealed some differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs that may cause reproductive system diseases. Target gene analyses suggested that destruction in tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) in testes may be mediated by miRNAs. Consistent with a significant enrichment of chemokine signaling pathways, we observed numerous macrophages in the testes of mice following treatment with MC-LR, which may cause testicular inflammation. Moreover, miR-98-5p and miR-758 were predicted to bind the 3'-UTR region of the mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (MAPK11, p38 ? isoform) gene which stimulates tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) expression in Sertoli cells. TNF-? could interact with the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) on germ cells leading to induction of germ cell apoptosis. Collectively, our integrated miRNA/mRNA analyses provided a molecular paradigm, which was experimentally validated, for understanding MC-LR-induced cytotoxicity.
Project description:Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). After exposure to various concentrations of MC-LR for 24 h, the growth of Sertoli cells was concentration-dependently decreased with an IC50 of ~32 ?g/mL. Mitochondria-mediated apoptotic changes were observed in Sertoli cells exposed to 8, 16, and 32 ?g/mL MC-LR including the increased expression of caspase pathway proteins, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and generation of ROS. Pretreatment with a global caspase inhibitor was found to depress the activation of caspases, and eventually increased the survival rate of Sertoli cells, implying that the mitochondrial caspases pathway is involved in MC-LR-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, N-acetyl-l-cysteine attenuated the MC-LR-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and cytochrome c release, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Taken together, the observed results suggested that MC-LR induced apoptotic death of Sertoli cells by the activation of mitochondrial caspases cascade, while its effects on the ROS-mediated signaling pathway may contribute toward the initiation of mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:Microcystins are a group of toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. Uptake of microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) by organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B2 in hepatocytes results in inhibition of protein phosphatase 1A and 2A, and subsequent cell death. Studies performed in primary rat hepatocytes demonstrate prototypical apoptosis after MC-LR exposure; however, no study has directly tested whether apoptosis is critically involved in vivo in the mouse, or in human hepatocytes. MC-LR (120 ?g/kg) was administered to C57BL/6J mice and cell death was evaluated by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release, caspase-3 activity in the liver, and histology. Mice exposed to MC-LR had increases in plasma ALT values, and hemorrhage in the liver, but no increase in capase-3 activity in the liver. Pre-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk failed to protect against cell death measured by ALT, glutathione depletion, or hemorrhage. Administration of MC-LR to primary human hepatocytes resulted in significant toxicity at concentrations between 5 nM and 1 ?M. There were no elevated caspase-3 activities and pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk failed to protect against cell death in human hepatocytes. MC-LR treated human hepatocytes stained positive for propidium iodide, indicating membrane instability, a marker of necrosis. Of note, both increases in PI positive cells, and increases in lactate dehydrogenase release, occurred before the onset of complete actin filament collapse. In conclusion, apoptosis does not contribute to MC-LR-induced cell death in the in vivo mouse model or in primary human hepatocytes in vitro. Thus, targeting necrotic cell death mechanisms will be critical for preventing microcystin-induced liver injury.
Project description:Presence of microcystin (MC), a predominant freshwater algal toxin and a suspected liver carcinogen, in Florida's freshwaters poses serious health threat to humans and aquatic species. Being recalcitrant to conventional physical and chemical water treatment methods, biological methods of MC removal is widely researched. Water samples collected from five sites of Lake Okeechobee (LO) frequently exposed to toxic Microcystis blooms were used as inoculum for enrichment with microcystin LR (MC-LR) supplied as sole C and N source. After 20 days incubation, MC levels were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A bacterial consortium consisting of two isolates DC7 and DC8 from the Indian Prairie Canal sample showed over 74% toxin degradation at the end of day 20. Optimal temperature requirement for biodegradation was identified and phosphorus levels did not affect the MC biodegradation. Based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity the isolate DC8 was found to have a match with Microbacterium sp. and the DC7 isolate with Rhizobium gallicum (AY972457).
Project description:Hazardous contaminants, such as nitrite and microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), are released into water bodies during cyanobacterial blooms and may adversely influence the normal physiological function of hydrobiontes. The combined effects of nitrite and MC-LR on the antioxidant defense and innate immunity were evaluated through an orthogonal experimental design (nitrite: 0, 29, 290 ?M; MC-LR: 0, 3, 30 nM). Remarkable increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have suggested that nitrite and/or MC-LR exposures induce oxidative stress in fish spleen, which were indirectly confirmed by significant downregulations of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as transcriptional levels of antioxidant enzyme genes cat1, sod1 and gpx1a. Simultaneously, nitrite and MC-LR significantly decreased serum complement C3 levels as well as the transcriptional levels of splenic c3b, lyz, il1?, ifn? and tnf?, and indicated that they could jointly impact the innate immunity of fish. The severity and extent of splenic lesions were aggravated by increased concentration of nitrite or MC-LR and became more serious in combined groups. The damages of mitochondria and pseudopodia in splenic macrophages suggest that oxidative stress exerted by nitrite and MC-LR aimed at the membrane structure of immune cells and ultimately disrupted immune function. Our results clearly demonstrate that nitrite and MC-LR exert synergistic suppressive effects on fish innate immunity via interfering antioxidant responses, and their joint toxicity should not be underestimated in eutrophic lakes.
Project description:Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has aroused more and more attention over the past few decades. In the present study, MC-LR was orally administered to female mice at 0, 1, 10 and 40 ?g/L for three and six months. We found that chronic exposure to MC-LR at environmental levels could stimulate follicle atresia and lead to decreased developmental follicles, accompanied by a reduction of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In line with the irregular gonadal hormone level and estrus cycles, subfertility of female mice was also confirmed by analyzing numbers of litters and pups. The in vitro study suggested that granulosa cells could uptake MC-LR and should be the target of the toxicant. Oxidative stress in granulose cells induced by MC-LR promoted follicle atresia and eventually leads to female subfertility.
Project description:The cyanobacterial toxins ?-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR; a potent liver toxin) are suspected to cause neurological disorders. Adult male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice aged approximately 11 months were subcutaneously injected for five consecutive days with L-BMAA and microcystin-LR alone, or as a mixture. A dose-range study determined a tolerable daily dose to be ~31?µg MC-LR/kg BW/day based on survival, serum liver status enzymes, and relative liver and kidney weight. Mice tolerating the first one-two doses also tolerated the subsequent three-four doses indicating adaptation. The LD50 was 43-50??g MC-LR/kg BW. Long-term effects (up to 10 weeks) on spatial learning and memory performance was investigated using a Barnes maze, were mice were given 30?µg MC-LR/kg BW and/or 30 mg L-BMAA/kg BW either alone or in mixture for five consecutive days. Anxiety, general locomotor activity, willingness to explore, hippocampal and peri-postrhinal cortex dependent memory was investigated after eight weeks using Open field combined with Novel location/Novel object recognition tests. Toxin exposed animals did not perform worse than controls, and MC-LR exposed animals performed somewhat better during the first Barnes maze re-test session. MC-LR exposed mice rapidly lost up to ~5% body weight, but regained weight from day eight.
Project description:Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a cyclic hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria, including Microcystis sp. and Planktothrix sp. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie have become a major human health concern in recent years, highlighted by the August 2014 city of Toledo, Ohio, municipal water "do not drink" order that affected nearly 500,000 residents for 3 days. Given that microcystin degrading bacteria have been reported from HAB-affected waters around the world, we hypothesized that MC-LR degrading bacteria could be isolated from Lake Erie. To test this hypothesis, 13 water samples were collected from various Lake Erie locations during the summers of 2014 and 2015, MC-LR was continuously added to each water sample for 3 to 5 weeks to enrich for MC-LR-degrading bacteria, and MC-LR was quantitated over time. Whereas MC-LR was relatively stable in sterile-filtered lake water, robust MC-LR degradation (up to 19 ppb/day) was observed in some water samples. Following the MC-LR selection process, 67 individual bacterial isolates were isolated from MC-LR degrading water samples and genotyped to exclude potential human pathogens, and MC-LR degradation by smaller groups of bacterial isolates (e.g., groups of 22 isolates, groups of 11 isolates, etc.) was examined. Of those smaller groups, selected groups of four to five bacterial isolates were found to degrade MC-LR into non-toxic forms and form robust biofilms on siliconized glass tubes. Taken together, these studies support the potential use of isolated bacterial isolates to remove MC-LR from drinking water.