Project description:Rhizobiales bacterium strain IZ6 is a novel filterable bacterium that was isolated from a suspension filtrate (<0.22 µm) of soil collected in Shimane Prefecture, western Japan. Additional closely related isolates were recovered from filterable fractions of terrestrial environmental samples collected from other places in Japan; the Gobi Desert, north-central China; and Svalbard, Arctic Norway. These findings indicate a wide distribution of this lineage. This study reports the cell variation and genomic structure of IZ6. When cultured at lower temperatures (4 °C and 15 °C), this strain contained ultra-small cells and cell-like particles in the filtrate. PacBio sequencing revealed that this chromosome (3,114,641 bp) contained 3150 protein-coding, 51 tRNA, and three rRNA genes. IZ6 showed low 16S rRNA gene sequence identity (<97%) and low average nucleotide identity (<76%) with its closest known relative, Flaviflagellibacter deserti. Unlike the methylotrophic bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in related genera, there were no genes that encoded enzymes for one-carbon-compound utilization and nitrogen fixation in the IZ6 genome; the genes related to nitrate and nitrite reductase are retained and those related to the cell membrane function tend to be slightly enriched in the genome. This genomic information helps elucidate the eco-physiological function of a phenotypically heterogeneous and diverse Rhizobiales group.
Project description:Elongation of many rod-shaped bacteria occurs by peptidoglycan synthesis at discrete foci along the sidewall of the cells. However, within the Rhizobiales, there are many budding bacteria, in which new cell growth is constrained to a specific region. The phylogeny of the Rhizobiales indicates that this mode of zonal growth may be ancestral. We demonstrate that the rod-shaped bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens grows unidirectionally from the new pole generated after cell division and has an atypical peptidoglycan composition. Polar growth occurs under all conditions tested, including when cells are attached to a plant root and under conditions that induce virulence. Finally, we show that polar growth also occurs in the closely related bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti, Brucella abortus, and Ochrobactrum anthropi. We find that unipolar growth is an ancestral and conserved trait among the Rhizobiales, which includes important mutualists and pathogens of plants and animals.