Project description:Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are routinely produced from dermal fibroblasts, with potential applications ranging from in vitro disease models to drug discovery and regenerative medicine. The need of eliminating the remaining reprogramming factors after iPSC production spurred the development of non-integrating viruses such as Sendai and other methods to deliver episomal vectors, which are progressively lost upon cell division. We compared four widespread methods (Sendai virus, Nucleofector, Neon transfection system and Lipofectamine 3000) to generate integration-free iPSC lines from primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDF) of three patients. Furthermore, we performed extensive characterization of the iPSC lines. We were able to produce iPSC lines with all tested methods with variable efficiency. Sendai virus method achieved the overall highest reprogramming rate, followed by electroporation-based methods Nucleofector and Neon transfection systems. Chemical-based Lipofectamine 3000 delivery resulted in the lowest number of iPSC colonies. We found the reprogramming rate to be intrinsically dependent on the individual hDFs but the amenability of each hDF to reprogramming showed consistency between methods. Regardless of the reprogramming strategy, iPSCs obtained did not reveal any significant differences in their morphology, expression of pluripotency markers, EB formation, karyotype or gene expression profiles.
Project description:TGFbeta induces fibrogenic responses in fibroblasts. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) may contribute to fibrogenic responses. Here, we examine if the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the NOX inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and the selective NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor GKT-137831 impairs the ability of TGFbeta to induce profibrotic gene expression in human gingival (HGF) and dermal (HDF) fibroblasts. We also assess if GKT-137831 can block the persistent fibrotic phenotype of lesional scleroderma (SSc) fibroblasts. We use real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis to evaluate whether NAC and DPI impair the ability of TGFbeta1 to induce expression of fibrogenic genes in fibroblasts. The effects of GKT-137831 on TGFbeta-induced protein expression and the persistent fibrotic phenotype of lesional scleroderma (SSc) fibroblasts were tested using Western blot and collagen gel contraction analyses. In HDF and HGF, TGFbeta1 induces CCN2, CCN1, endothelin-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) in a fashion sensitive to NAC. Induction of COL1A1 mRNA was unaffected. Similar results were seen with DPI. NAC and DPI impaired the ability of TGFbeta1 to induce protein expression of CCN2 and alpha-SMA in HDF and HGF. GKT-137831 impaired TGFbeta-induced CCN2 and alpha-SMA protein expression in HGF and HDF. In lesional SSc dermal fibroblasts, GKT-137831 reduced alpha-SMA and CCN2 protein overexpression and collagen gel contraction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that antioxidants or NOX1/4 inhibition may be useful in blocking profibrotic effects of TGFbeta on dermal and gingival fibroblasts and warrant consideration for further development as potential antifibrotic agents.
Project description:The cell and its glycosaminoglycan-rich pericellular matrix (PCM) comprise a functional unit. Because modification of PCM influences cell behavior, we investigated molecular mechanisms that regulate PCM volume and composition. In fibroblasts and other cells, aggregates of hyaluronan and versican are found in the PCM. Dermal fibroblasts from Adamts5(-/-) mice, which lack a versican-degrading protease, ADAMTS5, had reduced versican proteolysis, increased PCM, altered cell shape, enhanced ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression and increased contractility within three-dimensional collagen gels. The myofibroblast-like phenotype was associated with activation of TGF? signaling. We tested the hypothesis that fibroblast-myofibroblast transition in Adamts5(-/-) cells resulted from versican accumulation in PCM. First, we noted that versican overexpression in human dermal fibroblasts led to increased SMA expression, enhanced contractility, and increased Smad2 phosphorylation. In contrast, dermal fibroblasts from Vcan haploinsufficient (Vcan(hdf/+)) mice had reduced contractility relative to wild type fibroblasts. Using a genetic approach to directly test if myofibroblast transition in Adamts5(-/-) cells resulted from increased PCM versican content, we generated Adamts5(-/-);Vcan(hdf/+) mice and isolated their dermal fibroblasts for comparison with dermal fibroblasts from Adamts5(-/-) mice. In Adamts5(-/-) fibroblasts, Vcan haploinsufficiency or exogenous ADAMTS5 restored normal fibroblast contractility. These findings demonstrate that altering PCM versican content through proteolytic activity of ADAMTS5 profoundly influenced the dermal fibroblast phenotype and may regulate a phenotypic continuum between the fibroblast and its alter ego, the myofibroblast. We propose that a physiological function of ADAMTS5 in dermal fibroblasts is to maintain optimal versican content and PCM volume by continually trimming versican in hyaluronan-versican aggregates.
Project description:Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by defined factors is a mechanism-unknown, yet extremely time-consuming process. Inefficient reprogramming leads to prolonged periods of in vitro iPSC selection, resulting in subtle genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. To facilitate pluripotent reprogramming, we have identified the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) as an endogenous factor that can enhance reprogramming of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC). This potentiation of iPSC induction is associated with metabolic remodeling activity, including upregulation of key glycolytic genes, an increase in cell proliferation, and the induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). We further identify the activation of the PI3K/AKT signal pathway by T3 as an underlying mechanism for the enhanced conversion to cell pluripotency in this model. These studies demonstrate that T3 enhances metabolic remodeling of donor cells in potentiating cell reprogramming.
Project description:Wound healing is a complex process regulated by multiple signals and consisting of several phases known as haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodelling. Keratinocytes, endothelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts are the major cell populations involved in wound healing process. Hypoxia plays a critical role in this process since cells sense and respond to hypoxic conditions by changing gene expression. This study assessed the in vitro expression of 77 genes involved in angiogenesis, metabolism, cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis in human keratinocytes (HaCaT), microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), differentiated macrophages (THP-1), and dermal fibroblasts (HDF). Results indicated that the gene expression profiles induced by hypoxia were cell-type specific. In HMEC-1 and differentiated THP-1, most of the genes modulated by hypoxia encode proteins involved in angiogenesis or belonging to cytokines and growth factors. In HaCaT and HDF, hypoxia mainly affected the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cell metabolism. This work can help to enlarge the current knowledge about the mechanisms through which a hypoxic environment influences wound healing processes at the molecular level.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are attractive for biomedical applications not only for their remarkable physical properties, but also for the ease of which their surface chemistry can be manipulated. Many applications involve functionalization of the Au NP surface in order to improve biocompatibility, attach targeting ligands or carry drugs. However, changes in cells exposed to Au NPs of different surface chemistries have been observed, and little is known about how Au NPs and their surface coatings may impact cellular gene expression. The gene expression of two model human cell lines, human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and prostate cancer cells (PC3) was interrogated by microarray analysis of over 14,000 human genes. The cell lines were exposed to four differently functionalized Au NPs: citrate, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and lipid coatings combined with alkanethiols or PAH. Gene functional annotation categories and weighted gene correlation network analysis were used in order to connect gene expression changes to common cellular functions and to elucidate expression patterns between Au NP samples. Coated Au NPs affect genes implicated in proliferation, angiogenesis, and metabolism in HDF cells, and inflammation, angiogenesis, proliferation apoptosis regulation, survival and invasion in PC3 cells. Subtle changes in surface chemistry, such as the initial net charge, lability of the ligand, and underlying layers greatly influence the degree of expression change and the type of cellular pathway affected.
Project description:Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), the main cell population of the dermis, gradually lose their ability to produce collagen and renew intercellular matrix with aging. One clinical application for the autologous trans-dermis injection of HDFs that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration aims to refine facial contours and slow down skin aging. However, the autologous HDFs used vary in quality according to the state of patients and due to many passages they undergo during expansion. In this study, factors and exosomes derived from three-dimensional spheroids (3D HDF-XOs) and the monolayer culture of HDFs (2D HDF-XOs) were collected and compared. 3D HDF-XOs expressed a significantly higher level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and differentially expressed miRNA cargos compared with 2D HDF-XOs. Next, the efficacy of 3D HDF-XOs in inducing collagen synthesis and antiaging was demonstrated in vitro and in a nude mouse photoaging model. A needle-free injector was used to administer exosome treatments. 3D HDF-XOs caused increased procollagen type I expression and a significant decrease in MMP-1 expression, mainly through the downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and the upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?). In addition, the 3D-HDF-XOs group showed a higher level of dermal collagen deposition than bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes. These results indicate that exosomes from 3D cultured HDF spheroids have anti-skin-aging properties and the potential to prevent and treat cutaneous aging.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) can be used as a cellular model relatively easily and without genetic engineering. Therefore, HDF represent an interesting tool to study several human diseases including psychiatric disorders. Despite major depressive disorder (MDD) being the second cause of disability in the world, the efficacy of antidepressant drug (AD) treatment is not sufficient and the underlying mechanisms of MDD and the mechanisms of action of AD are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review is to highlight the potential of HDF in the study of cellular mechanisms involved in MDD pathophysiology and in the action of AD response. METHODS:The first part is a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines on the use of HDF in MDD research. The second part reports the mechanisms and molecules both present in HDF and relevant regarding MDD pathophysiology and AD mechanisms of action. RESULTS:HDFs from MDD patients have been investigated in a relatively small number of works and most of them focused on the adrenergic pathway and metabolism-related gene expression as compared to HDF from healthy controls. The second part listed an important number of papers demonstrating the presence of many molecular processes in HDF, involved in MDD and AD mechanisms of action. CONCLUSION:The imbalance in the number of papers between the two parts highlights the great and still underused potential of HDF, which stands out as a very promising tool in our understanding of MDD and AD mechanisms of action.
Project description:Molecular signalling pathways delineating the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are currently well-defined; however, the effects of UVR on epigenetic mechanisms of MMP induction are not as well understood. In this study, we examined solar-simulated UVR (ssUVR)-induced gene expression changes and alterations to histone methylation in the promoters of MMP1 and MMP3 in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). Gene expression changes, including the increased expression of MMP1 and MMP3, were observed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays and confirmed by qRT-PCR. Using ChIP-PCR, we showed for the first time that in HDF irradiated with 12 J/cm(2) ssUVR, the H3K4me3 transcriptional activating mark increased and the H3K9me2 transcriptional silencing mark decreased in abundance in promoters, correlating with the observed elevation of MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA levels following ssUVR exposure. Changes in mRNA levels due to a single exposure were transient and decreased 5 days after exposure.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of reprogrammed cells at day 20 post-transduction comparing compact and differentiated colonies with established induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) generated from human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). This study focused in the identification of upregulated transcription factors related to early developmental processes, particularly during primitive streak formation. Overall design: Compact embryonic stem cell-like colonies and differentiated polygonal cell-containing colonies at day 20 after reprogramming vector transduction into HDF, isolated from three different reprogramming experiments; and undifferentiated colonies from and established iPSC line, at passage 20. One replicate for compact and differentiated samples. Two replicates for iPSC sample.