Project description:It is clear that specific intestinal bacteria are involved in the development of different premalignant conditions along the gastrointestinal tract. An analysis of the microbial constituents in the context of pancreatic cystic lesions has, however, as yet not been performed. This consideration prompted us to explore whether endoscopically obtained pancreatic cyst fluids (PCF) contain bacterial DNA and to determine the genera of bacteria present in such material.Total DNA was isolated from 69 PCF samples. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-specific PCR was performed followed by Sanger sequencing and de novo deep sequencing for the V3-V4 variable region of 16S rRNA gene.We observed that 98.2% of the samples were positive in conventional PCR, and that 100% of selected PCF samples (n = 33) were positive for bacterial microbiota as determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). Comprehensive NGS data analysis of PCF showed the presence of 408 genera of bacteria, of which 17 bacterial genera were uniquely abundant to PCF, when compared to the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) database and 15 bacterial microbiota were uniquely abundant in HMP only. Bacteroides spp., Escherichia/Shigella spp., and Acidaminococcus spp. which were predominant in PCF, while also a substantial Staphylococcus spp. and Fusobacterium spp. component was detected.These results reveal and characterize an apparently specific bacterial ecosystem in pancreatic cyst fluid samples and may reflect the local microbiota in the pancreas. Some taxa with potential deleterious functions are present in the bacterial abundance profiles, suggesting that the unique microbiome in this specific niche may contribute to neoplastic processes in the pancreas. Further studies are needed to explore the intricate relationship between pathophysiological status in the host pancreas and its microbiota.
Project description:Telomere end-to-end fusions are an important source of chromosomal instability that arise in cells with critically shortened telomeres. We developed a nested real-time quantitative PCR method for telomere fusion detection in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), and IPMN cyst fluids. Ninety-one pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenograft samples, 93 IPMNs, and 93 surgically aspirated IPMN cyst fluid samples were analyzed. The association between telomere shortening, telomerase activity, and telomere fusion detection was evaluated. Telomere fusions were detected in 56 of 91 pancreatic cancers (61.5%). Telomere fusion-positive cell lines had significantly shorter telomere lengths than fusion-negative lines (P = 0.003). Telomere fusions were undetectable in normal pancreas or IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia (0.0%) and were detected in IPMN with high-grade dysplasia (HGD; 48.0%) (P < 0.001). In IPMN cyst fluids, telomere fusions were more frequent in IPMNs with HGD (26.9%) or associated invasive cancer (42.9%) than IPMN with intermediate-grade dysplasia (15.4%) or low-grade dysplasia (0%) (P = 0.025). Telomerase activity levels were higher in cyst fluids with fusions than in those without (P = 0.0414). Cyst fluid telomere fusion status was an independent predictor of HGD/invasive cancer by multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 6.23; 95% CI, 1.61-28.0). Telomere fusions are detected in later stages of IPMN progression and can serve as a marker for predicting the presence of HGD and/or invasive cancer.
Project description:We determined whether the mutations found in ovarian cancers could be identified in the patients' ovarian cyst fluids. Tumor-specific mutations were detectable in the cyst fluids of 19 of 23 (83%) borderline tumors, 10 of 13 (77%) type I cancers, and 18 of 18 (100%) type II cancers. In contrast, no mutations were found in the cyst fluids of 18 patients with benign tumors or non-neoplastic cysts. Though large, prospective studies are needed to demonstrate the safety and clinical utility of this approach, our results suggest that the genetic evaluation of cyst fluids might be able to inform the management of the large number of women with these lesions.
Project description:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a precursor cystic lesion to pancreatic cancer. With the goal of classifying IPMN cases by risk of progression to pancreatic cancer, we undertook an exploratory next generation sequencing (NGS) based profiling study of miRNAs (miRNome) in the cyst fluids from low grade-benign and high grade-invasive pancreatic cystic lesions. Thirteen miRNAs (miR-138, miR-195, miR-204, miR-216a, miR-217, miR-218, miR-802, miR-155, miR-214, miR-26a, miR-30b, miR-31, and miR-125) were enriched and two miRNAs (miR-451a and miR-4284) were depleted in the cyst fluids derived from invasive carcinomas. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that the relative abundance of tumor suppressor miR-216a and miR-217 varied significantly in these cyst fluid samples. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) analysis indicated that the genes targeted by the differentially enriched cyst fluid miRNAs are involved in five canonical signaling pathways, including molecular mechanisms of cancer and signaling pathways implicated in colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. Our findings make a compelling case for undertaking in-depth analyses of cyst fluid miRNomes for developing informative early detection biomarkers of pancreatic cancer developing from pancreatic cystic lesions.
Project description:A 55-yr-old woman presented with abdominal bloating for approximately 1 year. Imaging studies showed a cyst in the body of the pancreas with proximal pancreatic ductal dilation. An endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was performed. Cytologic findings from the cyst fluid were consistent with a mucinous neoplastic cyst, and the possibility of malignancy could not be entirely excluded. A KRAS mutation analysis was performed on the cyst fluid using the Idylla system and circulating tumor KRAS (ctKRAS) cartridge (Biocartis, Mechelen, Belgium), which tests for actionable mutations in exons 2, 3, and 4 of the KRAS gene. Idylla testing detected a KRAS G12D mutation in the cyst fluid. The patient subsequently underwent a distal subtotal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Microscopic examination of the resected tissue revealed an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with an associated invasive carcinoma. KRAS testing on the resected tumor tissue confirmed the G12D mutation detected in the cyst fluid earlier. The described rapid testing of KRAS directly from the pancreatic cyst fluid can complement cytology assessment to classify pancreatic cysts more reliably and can potentially be of significant help when other cyst findings are nondiagnostic.
Project description:Pancreatic cyst fluids (PCFs) enriched in tumour-derived proteins are considered a potential source of new biomarkers. This study aimed to determine compositional and quantitative differences between the degradome and proteome of PCFs aspirated from different types of pancreatic cyst lesions (PCLs). 91 patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration under routine clinical diagnosis of PCLs were enrolled. Four cysts were malignant (CAs), and 87 were nonmalignant and consisted of 18 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), 14 mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), nine serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs), 29 pseudocysts (PCs), and 17 unclassified. Profiles of the <5 kDa fraction, the degradome, and the trypsin-digested proteome were analysed using an LTQ-Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer coupled with a nanoACQUITY LC system. Qualitative analyses identified 796 and 366 proteins in degradome and proteome, respectively, and 689 (77%) and 285 (78%) of them were present in the Plasma Proteome Database. Gene Ontology analysis showed a significant overrepresentation of peptidases and peptidases inhibitors in both datasets. In the degradome fraction, quantitative values were obtained for 6996 peptides originating from 657 proteins. Of these, 2287 peptides were unique to a single type, and 515 peptides, derived from 126 proteins, were shared across cyst types. 32 peptides originating from 12 proteins had differential (adjusted p-value ?0.05, FC ?1.5) abundance in at least one of the five cysts types. In proteome, relative expression was measured for 330 proteins. Of them, 33 proteins had significantly (adjusted p-value ?0.05, FC ?1.5) altered abundance in at least one of the studied groups and 19 proteins appeared to be unique to a given cyst type. PCFs are dominated by blood proteins and proteolytic enzymes. Although differences in PCF peptide composition and abundance could aid classification of PCLs, the unpredictable inherent PCF proteolytic activity may limit the practical applications of PCF protein profiling.
Project description:Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) is a subgroup of PTC presenting a diagnostic challenge at fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). To further investigate this entity we aimed to characterize protein profiles of cyst fluids from cPTC and benign thyroid cystic lesions. In total, 20 cPTCs and 56 benign thyroid cystic lesions were studied. Profiling by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on cyst fluids from a subset of cases after depletion, and selected proteins were further analyzed by Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,581 proteins were detected in cyst fluids, of which 841 were quantified in all samples using LC-MS/MS. Proteins with different expression levels between cPTCs and benign lesions were identified by univariate analysis (41 proteins) and multivariate analysis (59 proteins in an orthogonal partial least squares model). WB analyses of cyst fluid and IHC on corresponding tissue samples confirmed a significant up-regulation of cytokeratin 19 (CK-19/CYFRA 21-1) and S100A13 in cPTC vs. benign lesions. These findings were further confirmed by ELISA in an extended material of non-depleted cyst fluids from cPTCs (n = 17) and benign lesions (n = 55) (p<0.05). Applying a cut-off at >55 ng/ml for CK-19 resulted in 82% specificity and sensitivity. For S100A13 a cut-off at >230 pg/ml revealed a 94% sensitivity, but only 35% specificity. This is the first comprehensive catalogue of the protein content in fluid from thyroid cysts. The up-regulations of CK-19 and S100A13 suggest their possible use in FNAB based preoperative diagnostics of cystic thyroid lesions.
Project description:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this work is to determine if the speed of sound value of a breast cyst can aid in the clinical management of breast masses. Breast macrocysts are defined as fluid-filled tissue masses >1 cm in diameter and are thought to be aberrations of normal development and involution, often associated with apocrine metaplasia. The benign natural history of breast cysts is well known, and it is important to obtain high specificity in breast imaging to avoid unnecessary biopsies in women who have benign diseases, particularly those with dense breast tissue. Transmission ultrasound is a tomographic imaging modality that generates high-resolution, 3D speed of sound maps that could be used to identify breast tissue types and act as a biomarker to differentiate lesions. We performed this study to investigate the microanatomy of macrocysts observed using transmission ultrasound, as well as assess the relationship of speed of sound to the physical and biochemical parameters of cyst fluids. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cyst fluid samples were obtained from 37 patients as part of a case-collection study for ultrasound imaging of the breast. The speed of sound of each sample was measured using a quantitative transmission ultrasound scanner in vivo. Electrolytes, protein, cholesterol, viscosity, and specific gravity were also measured (in the aspirated cyst fluid) to assess their relationship to the speed of sound values obtained during breast imaging. RESULTS:We found positive correlations between viscosity and cholesterol (r?=?0.71) and viscosity and total protein?×?cholesterol (r?=?0.78). Additionally, we performed direct cell counts on cyst fluids and confirmed a positive correlation of number of cells with speed of sound (r?=?0.74). The speed of sound of breast macrocysts, as observed using transmission ultrasound, correlated with the cytological features of intracystic cell clumps. CONCLUSION:On the basis of our work with speed as a classifier, we propose a spectrum of breast macrocysts from fluid-filled to highly cellular. Our results suggest high-speed cysts are mature macrocysts with high cell counts and many cellular clumps that correlate with cyst microanatomy as seen by transmission ultrasound. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to assess the clinical value of speed of sound measurements in breast imaging using transmission ultrasound.
Project description:The pancreatic cyst fluids were collected using a syringe aspiration of the cyst fluid immediately after surgical resection of the lesion. The cyst fluid were then aliquoted and stored in -80C freezer until ready to use. We plan on performing untargeted metabolomics analysis on these pancreatic cyst fluid to find potential biomarkers that correlate with histopathological assessment and clinical behavior of these cystic lesions and thus to guide clinical management of patients.
Project description:There is significant research interest in developing and validating novel pancreatic cyst-fluid biomarkers given the increasing recognition of the prevalence of pancreatic cysts and their associated malignant potential. Although current international consensus guidelines are helpful, they fail to diagnose with certainty the cyst type and the level of epithelial dysplasia. They also fall short in predicting the future likelihood of malignant transformation. A systematic review was performed with the objective of summarizing cyst-fluid-based biomarkers that have been published in the medical literature over the past 10 years and characterizing the current quality of evidence. Our review demonstrates that there is an increasing interest in this topic with several different and innovative approaches including DNA, RNA, proteomic, and metabolomics profiling. Further techniques to improve upon cytological yield have also been studied. Besides identifying potentially useful clinical biomarkers, these empiric approaches have provided further insight into their pathogenesis. The level of evidence for the vast majority of these studies, however, is limited to retrospective early validation studies. The path forward will be to select out the most promising biomarkers and develop multicenter consortiums capable of capturing adequate sample sizes with appropriate study designs.