Project description:The human enteropathogen, Yersinia enterocolitica, is a significant link in the range of Yersinia pathologies extending from mild gastroenteritis to bubonic plague. Comparison at the genomic level is a key step in our understanding of the genetic basis for this pathogenicity spectrum. Here we report the genome of Y. enterocolitica strain 8081 (serotype 0:8; biotype 1B) and extensive microarray data relating to the genetic diversity of the Y. enterocolitica species. Our analysis reveals that the genome of Y. enterocolitica strain 8081 is a patchwork of horizontally acquired genetic loci, including a plasticity zone of 199 kb containing an extraordinarily high density of virulence genes. Microarray analysis has provided insights into species-specific Y. enterocolitica gene functions and the intraspecies differences between the high, low, and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica biotypes. Through comparative genome sequence analysis we provide new information on the evolution of the Yersinia. We identify numerous loci that represent ancestral clusters of genes potentially important in enteric survival and pathogenesis, which have been lost or are in the process of being lost, in the other sequenced Yersinia lineages. Our analysis also highlights large metabolic operons in Y. enterocolitica that are absent in the related enteropathogen, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, indicating major differences in niche and nutrients used within the mammalian gut. These include clusters directing, the production of hydrogenases, tetrathionate respiration, cobalamin synthesis, and propanediol utilisation. Along with ancestral gene clusters, the genome of Y. enterocolitica has revealed species-specific and enteropathogen-specific loci. This has provided important insights into the pathology of this bacterium and, more broadly, into the evolution of the genus. Moreover, wider investigations looking at the patterns of gene loss and gain in the Yersinia have highlighted common themes in the genome evolution of other human enteropathogens.
Project description:Yersinia enterocolitica evades the immune response by injecting Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into the cytosol of host cells. YopH is a tyrosine phosphatase critical for Yersinia virulence. However, the mucosal immune mechanisms subverted by YopH during in vivo orogastric infection with Y. enterocolitica remain elusive. The results of this study revealed neutrophil recruitment to Peyer's patches (PP) after infection with a YopH-deficient mutant strain (Y. enterocolitica ?yopH). While the Y. enterocolitica wild-type (WT) strain in PP induced the major neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 mRNA and protein levels, infection with the Y. enterocolitica ?yopH mutant strain exhibited a higher expression of the CXCL1 receptor, CXCR2, in blood neutrophils, leading to efficient neutrophil recruitment to the PP. In contrast, migration of neutrophils into PP was impaired upon infection with Y. enterocolitica WT strain. In vitro infection of blood neutrophils revealed the involvement of YopH in CXCR2 expression. Depletion of neutrophils during Y. enterocolitica ?yopH infection raised the bacterial load in PP. Moreover, the clearance of WT Y. enterocolitica was improved when an equal mixture of Y. enterocolitica WT and Y. enterocolitica ?yopH strains was used in infecting the mice. This study indicates that Y. enterocolitica prevents early neutrophil recruitment in the intestine and that the effector protein YopH plays an important role in the immune evasion mechanism. The findings highlight the potential use of the Y. enterocolitica YopH-deficient strain as an oral vaccine carrier.
Project description:We report here the first finished and annotated genome sequence of a representative of the most epidemiologically successful Yersinia group, Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica strain Y11, serotype O:3, biotype 4. This strain is a certified type strain of the German DSMZ collection (DSM no. 13030; Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica) that was isolated from the stool of a human patient (H. Neubauer, S. Aleksic, A. Hensel, E. J. Finke, and H. Meyer. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 290:61-64, 2000).
Project description:BACKGROUND: Yersinia enterocolitica strains responsible for mild gastroenteritis in humans are very diverse with respect to their metabolic and virulence properties. Strain W22703 (biotype 2, serotype O:9) was recently identified to possess nematocidal and insecticidal activity. To better understand the relationship between pathogenicity towards insects and humans, we compared the W22703 genome with that of the highly pathogenic strain 8081 (biotype1B; serotype O:8), the only Y. enterocolitica strain sequenced so far. RESULTS: We used whole-genome shotgun data to assemble, annotate and analyse the sequence of strain W22703. Numerous factors assumed to contribute to enteric survival and pathogenesis, among them osmoregulated periplasmic glucan, hydrogenases, cobalamin-dependent pathways, iron uptake systems and the Yersinia genome island 1 (YGI-1) involved in tight adherence were identified to be common to the 8081 and W22703 genomes. However, sets of ~550 genes revealed to be specific for each of them in comparison to the other strain. The plasticity zone (PZ) of 142 kb in the W22703 genome carries an ancient flagellar cluster Flg-2 of ~40 kb, but it lacks the pathogenicity island YAPI(Ye), the secretion system ysa and yts1, and other virulence determinants of the 8081 PZ. Its composition underlines the prominent variability of this genome region and demonstrates its contribution to the higher pathogenicity of biotype 1B strains with respect to W22703. A novel type three secretion system of mosaic structure was found in the genome of W22703 that is absent in the sequenced strains of the human pathogenic Yersinia species, but conserved in the genomes of the apathogenic species. We identified several regions of differences in W22703 that mainly code for transporters, regulators, metabolic pathways, and defence factors. CONCLUSION: The W22703 sequence analysis revealed a genome composition distinct from other pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains, thus contributing novel data to the Y. enterocolitica pan-genome. This study also sheds further light on the strategies of this pathogen to cope with its environments.
Project description:The first shotgun genome sequence of a microbial pathogen from the Philippines is reported. Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica strain PhRBD_Ye1 is the first Y. enterocolitica strain sequenced from an animal source, swine, which is a natural source of yersiniosis. The closest phylogenetic match is a human clinical isolate from Germany.
Project description:To study phage-mediated gene transfer in Yersinia, the ability of Yersinia phages to transduce naturally occurring plasmids was investigated. The transduction experiments were performed with a temperate phage isolated from a pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strain and phage mixtures isolated from sewage. Small plasmids (4.3 and 5.8 kb) were transduced at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-7)/PFU. However, we could not detect the transduction of any indigenous virulence plasmid (ca. 72 kb) in pathogenic Yersinia strains. Transductants obtained by infection with the temperate phage were lysogenic and harbored the phage genome in their chromosomes.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Swedish clinical strain of <i>Yersinia enterocolitica</i>, Y72. With emerging <i>Yersinia</i> outbreaks circulating in Nordic countries, the Y72 genome will provide more insights on the genetic relatedness and antibiotic resistance dissemination in future studies.
Project description:A multiplex PCR method for rapid and sensitive diagnosis, differentiating three pathogenic Yersinia groups such as the highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, including serotype O8, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis, was developed. Four primer pairs were chosen to detect the genes fyuA, ail, inv, and virF, responsible for the virulence in pathogenic Yersinia species. Under the multiplex PCR conditions, the unique band patterns for the highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, low pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis were generated from Yersinia strains. The detection limit of this method was 10<sup>1</sup>-10<sup>3</sup> CFU per reaction tube. This multiplex PCR method could detect highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica O8 from the wild rodent fecal samples that were culture-positive. Therefore, the new multiplex PCR method developed in this study is a useful tool for rapid and sensitive diagnosis, distinguishing three pathogenic Yersinia groups.
Project description:We sequenced the genome of a clinical isolate of Yersinia enterocolitica (IP10393) from France. This strain belongs to bioserotype 4/O:3, which is the most common pathogenic subgroup worldwide. The draft genome has a size of 4,463,212 bp and a G+C content of 47.0%, and it is predicted to contain 4,181 coding sequences.
Project description:Food-associated outbreaks linked to enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica are of concern to public health. Pigs and their meat are recognized risk factors for transmission of Y. enterocolitica. This study aimed to describe the comparative genomics of Y. enterocolitica along with a number of misclassified Yersinia isolates, now constituting the recently described Yersinia hibernica. The latter was originally cultured from an environmental sample taken at a pig slaughterhouse. Unique features were identified in the genome of Y. hibernica, including a novel integrative conjugative element (ICE), denoted as ICEYh-1 contained within a 255 kbp region of plasticity. In addition, a zebrafish embryo infection model was adapted and applied to assess the virulence potential among Yersinia isolates including Y. hibernica.