Project description:To identify genes affected by Pha13, Pha13 was transiently overexpressed in leaves of P. aphrodite by agroinfiltration. The leaves of P. aphrodite infiltrated with agrobacterium carrying empty vector (without Pha13) was used as a control. Transcriptional profiling was analyzed using a customized oligonucleotide array with RNA extracted from Pha13 and empty vector overexpressed leaves of P. aphrodite. The sequences used for probe design were collected from the Orchidstra 2.0 database (http://orchidstra2.abrc.sinica.edu.tw/orchidstra2/index.php). Totally, 42,973 probes were designed on this oligonucleotide array. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, Empty vector (EV) vs. Pha13 transient overexpression (Pha13-OE). Biological replicates: 3 control replicates, 3 transient overexpression replicates.
Project description:To identify genes affected by Pha21, Pha21 was transiently overexpressed in leaves of P. aphrodite by agroinfiltration. The leaves of P. aphrodite infiltrated with agrobacterium carrying empty vector (without Pha21) was used as a control. Transcriptional profiling was analyzed using a customized oligonucleotide array with RNA extracted from Pha21 and empty vector overexpressed leaves of P. aphrodite. The sequences used for probe design were collected from the Orchidstra 2.0 database (http://orchidstra2.abrc.sinica.edu.tw/orchidstra2/index.php). Totally, 42,973 probes were designed on this oligonucleotide array. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, Empty vector (EV) vs. Pha21 transient overexpression (Pha21-OE). Biological replicates: 3 control replicates, 3 transient overexpression replicates.
Project description:We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions.
Project description:We performed one degradome sequencing for identification and characterization of novel microRNAs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana. Plant tissues of leaves, stalk, and flower buds frozen in liquid nitrogen were ground to fine powder using a mortar and pestle, respectively. Total RNA extraction was freshly prepared using Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) following the manufacturer's instructions. About 50 μg of leaves with or without low temperature treatment, stalks and flower buds were taken separately and then mixed. The degradome library was constructed by the Genomics BioSci & Tech. Company following the manufactoring protocol. In brief, 200 μg of total RNA was passed though polyA column using the Oligotex kit (Qiagen). The 5'-RNA adapter containing a Mme I recognition site was ligated by T4 RNA ligase and further reverse transcribed to amplify the templates. After digesting with Mme I then ligated to a 3'-double DNA adapter, the products were amplified by additional PCR cycles and gel-purified for Illumina sequencing. The files contain the raw data of degradome sequencing. Examination of one degradome of mixed tissues of Phalaenopsis orchid
Project description:CONSTANS (CO) and CONSTANS-like (COL) genes play important roles in coalescing signals from photoperiod and temperature pathways. However, the mechanism of CO and COLs involved in regulating the developmental stage transition and photoperiod/temperature senescing remains unclear. In this study, we identified a COL ortholog gene from the Taiwan native orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite. The Phalaenopsis aphrodite CONSTANS-like 1 (PaCOL1) belongs to the B-box protein family and functions in the nucleus and cytosol. Expression profile analysis of Phalaenopsis aphrodite revealed that PaCOL1 was significantly expressed in leaves, but its accumulation was repressed during environmental temperature shifts. We found a differential profile for PaCOL1 accumulation, with peak accumulation at late afternoon and at the middle of the night. Arabidopsis with PaCOL1 overexpression showed earlier flowering under short-day (SD) conditions (8 h/23 °C light and 16 h/23 °C dark) but similar flowering time under long-day (LD) conditions (16 h/23 °C light and 8 h/23 °C dark). Transcriptome sequencing revealed several genes upregulated in PaCOL1-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants that were previously involved in flowering regulation of the photoperiod pathway. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis revealed that PaCOL1 could interact with a crucial clock-associated regulator, AtCCA1, and a flowering repressor, AtFLC. Furthermore, expressing PaCOL1 in cca1.lhy partially reversed the mutant flowering time under photoperiod treatment, which confirms the role of PaCOL1 function in the rhythmic associated factors for modulating flowering.
Project description:Orchids display unique phenotypes, functional characteristics and ecological adaptations that are not found in model plants. In this study, we aimed to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) transcriptome and identify species- and tissue-specific miRNAs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite. After data filtering and cleanup, a total of 59,387,374 reads, representing 1,649,996 unique reads, were obtained from four P. aphrodite small RNA libraries. A systematic bioinformatics analysis pipeline was developed that can be used for miRNA and precursor mining, and target gene prediction in non-model plants. A total of 3,251 unique reads for 181 known plant miRNAs (belonging to 88 miRNA families), 23 new miRNAs and 91 precursors were identified. All the miRNA star sequences (miRNA*), the complementary strands of miRNA that from miRNA/miRNA* duplexes, of the predicted new miRNAs were detected in our small RNA libraries, providing additional evidence for their existence as new miRNAs in P. aphrodite. Furthermore, 240 potential miRNA-targets that appear to be involved in many different biological activities and molecular functions, especially transcription factors, were identified, suggesting that miRNAs can impact multiple processes in P. aphrodite. We also verified the cleavage sites for six targets using RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' ends assay. The results provide valuable information about the composition, expression and function of miRNA in P. aphrodite, and will aid functional genomics studies of orchids.
Project description:Previously we developed genomic resources for orchids, including transcriptomic analyses using next-generation sequencing techniques and construction of a web-based orchid genomic database. Here, we report a modified molecular model of flower development in the Orchidaceae based on functional analysis of gene expression profiles in Phalaenopsis aphrodite (a moth orchid) that revealed novel roles for the transcription factors involved in floral organ pattern formation. Phalaenopsis orchid floral organ-specific genes were identified by microarray analysis. Several critical transcription factors including AP3, PI, AP1 and AGL6, displayed distinct spatial distribution patterns. Phylogenetic analysis of orchid MADS box genes was conducted to infer the evolutionary relationship among floral organ-specific genes. The results suggest that gene duplication MADS box genes in orchid may have resulted in their gaining novel functions during evolution. Based on these analyses, a modified model of orchid flowering was proposed. Comparison of the expression profiles of flowers of a peloric mutant and wild-type Phalaenopsis orchid further identified genes associated with lip morphology and peloric effects. Large scale investigation of gene expression profiles revealed that homeotic genes from the ABCDE model of flower development classes A and B in the Phalaenopsis orchid have novel functions due to evolutionary diversification, and display differential expression patterns.
Project description:Orchidaceae is one of the most abundant and diverse families in the plant kingdom and its unique developmental patterns have drawn the attention of many evolutionary biologists. Particular areas of interest have included the co-evolution of pollinators and distinct floral structures, and symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal flora. However, comprehensive studies to decipher the molecular basis of growth and development in orchids remain scarce. Cell proliferation governed by cell-cycle regulation is fundamental to growth and development of the plant body. We took advantage of recently released transcriptome information to systematically isolate and annotate the core cell-cycle regulators in the moth orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite. Our data verified that Phalaenopsis cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA) is an evolutionarily conserved CDK. Expression profiling studies suggested that core cell-cycle genes functioning during the G1/S, S, and G2/M stages were preferentially enriched in the meristematic tissues that have high proliferation activity. In addition, subcellular localization and pairwise interaction analyses of various combinations of CDKs and cyclins, and of E2 promoter-binding factors and dimerization partners confirmed interactions of the functional units. Furthermore, our data showed that expression of the core cell-cycle genes was coordinately regulated during pollination-induced reproductive development. The data obtained establish a fundamental framework for study of the cell-cycle machinery in Phalaenopsis orchids.