Project description:We studied the core bacterial communities of 19 sponge species from Nha Trang Bay (Central Vietnam), with particular emphasis on the contribution of planktonic seawater bacteria to the sponge core microbiomes. To ensure consistent sponge-microbe associations and accurate identification of planktonic bacteria transmitted from seawater, we were very restrictive with the definition of the sponge core microbiomes (present in all the replicates), and with the identification of valid biological 16S rRNA gene sequences (100% sequence identity) that belonged to potentially different bacterial taxa. We found a high overlap (>50% relative abundance) between the sponge species core microbiome and the seawater bacterial core in ca. a half of the studied species, including representatives of both, HMA and LMA sponges. From our restrictive analysis, we point to horizontal transmission as a relevant way of symbiont acquisition in sponges. Some species-specific recognition mechanisms may act in sponges to enrich specific seawater bacteria in their tissues. These mechanisms would allow the maintenance of bacterial communities in a species across geographical ranges. Moreover, besides contrasting preferences in bacteria selection from seawater, divergent physiological traits may also account for the different microbiomes in species of HMA and LMA sponges.
Project description:We report data associated with the identification of three polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes (phaC) isolated from the marine bacteria metagenome of Aaptos aaptos marine sponge in the waters of Bidong Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Our data describe the extraction of bacterial metagenome from sponge tissue, measurement of purity and concentration of extracted metagenome, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated amplification using degenerate primers targeting Class I and II phaC genes, sequencing at First BASE Laboratories Sdn Bhd, and phylogenetic analysis of identified and known phaC genes. The partial nucleotide sequences were aligned, refined, compared with the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) databases, and released online in GenBank. The data include the identified partial putative phaC and their GenBank accession numbers, which are Rhodocista sp. phaC (MF457754), Pseudomonas sp. phaC (MF437016), and an uncultured bacterium AR5-9d_16 phaC (MF457753).
Project description:Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water), in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater), and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater). Samples were collected from two sponge species, Ircinia campana and Spheciospongia vesparium, on a near-shore hard bottom reef in the Florida Keys. Metabolic profiles generated from untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated that many more compounds were enhanced in the exhalent samples than in the inhalant samples. Targeted metabolomics analysis revealed differences in diversity and concentration of metabolites between exhalent and off reef seawater. For example, most of the nucleosides were enriched in the exhalent seawater, while the aromatic amino acids, caffeine and the nucleoside xanthosine were elevated in the off reef water samples. Although the metabolic profile of the exhalent seawater was unique, the impact of sponge metabolism on the overall reef DOM profile was spatially limited in our study. There were also no significant differences in the metabolic profiles of exhalent water between the two sponge species, potentially indicating that there is a characteristic DOM profile in the exhalent seawater of Caribbean sponges. Additional work is needed to determine whether the impact of sponge DOM is greater in habitats with higher sponge cover and diversity. This work provides the first insight into the molecular-level impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on reef DOM and establishes a foundation for future experimental studies addressing the influence of sponge-derived DOM on chemical and ecological processes in coral reef ecosystems.
Project description:Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic-magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide.
Project description:Molecular techniques were employed to document the microbial diversity associated with the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. The phylogenetic affiliation of sponge-associated bacteria was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing of cloned DNA fragments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to confirm the presence of the predominant groups indicated by 16S rDNA analysis. The community structure was extremely diverse with representatives of the Actinobacteria, low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, the beta- and gamma-subdivisions of the Proteobacteria, Cytophaga/Flavobacterium, green sulfur bacteria, green nonsulfur bacteria, planctomycetes, and other sequence types with no known close relatives. FISH probes revealed the spatial location of these bacteria within the sponge tissue, in some cases suggesting possible symbiotic functions. The high proportion of 16S rRNA sequences derived from novel actinomycetes is good evidence for the presence of an indigenous marine actinomycete assemblage in R. odorabile. High microbial diversity was inferred from low duplication of clones in a library with 70 representatives. Determining the phylogenetic affiliation of sponge-associated microorganisms by 16S rRNA analysis facilitated the rational selection of culture media and isolation conditions to target specific groups of well-represented bacteria for laboratory culture. Novel media incorporating sponge extracts were used to isolate bacteria not previously recovered from this sponge.
Project description:The bacterial members of the genus Shewanella are widely distributed and inhabit both freshwater and marine environments. Some members of Shewanella have gained considerable attention due to its ability to survive in redox-stratified environments. However, a gap of knowledge exists on the key genomic features of the sponge-associated Shewanella sp. involving the successful host-bacteria interaction, as sponge-symbiotic Shewanella are largely underrepresented in the public repositories. With the aim of identifying the genomic signatures of sponge-Shewanella association, we generated a high-quality genome data of a sponge-associated, Shewanella sp. OPT22, isolated from the intertidal marine sponge Ophlitaspongia papilla and performed comprehensive comparative analyses of 68 genome strains of the genus Shewanella including two previously reported genomes of sponge-associated bacteria, Shewanella spongiae KCTC 22492 and Shewanella sp. Alg231_23. The 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic reconstruction showed the well-supported affiliation of OPT22 and KCTC 22492 with previously reported sponge-associated bacteria, affirming the "sponge-specific" nature of these two bacterial strains isolated from different marine sponge species from the Atlantic and Pacific (East Sea) Oceans, respectively. The genome comparison of the 68 strains of Shewanella inhabiting different habitats revealed the unusual/previously unreported abundance of genes encoding for ankyrin-repeat containing proteins (ANKs) in the genomes of the two sponge-associated strains, OPT22 (ANKs; n = 45) and KCTC 22492 (ANKs; n = 52), which might be involved in sponge-Shewanella interactions. Focused analyses detected the syntenic organization of the gene cluster encoding major secretion system (type III/IV/VI) components and the presence of effector homologs in OPT22 and KCTC 22492 that seem to play a role in the virulence of the sponge bacteria. The genomic island (GI) of Shewanella sp. OPT22 was identified to localize a gene cluster encoding T4SS components and ANK (n = 1), whereas S. spongiae KCTC 22492 harbored a total of seven ANKs within multiple GIs. GIs may play a pivotal role in the dissemination of symbioses-related genes (ANKs) through the horizontal gene transfer, contributing to the diversification and adaptation of sponge-associated Shewanella. Overall, the genome analyses of Shewanella isolates from marine sponges revealed genomic repertoires that might be involved in establishing successful symbiotic relationships with the sponge hosts.
Project description:Crambe crambe is a marine sponge that produces high concentrations of the pharmacologically significant pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids (PGAs), Crambescines and Crambescidines. Although bio-mimetic chemical synthesis of PGAs suggests involvement of microorganisms in their biosynthesis, there are conflicting reports on whether bacteria are associated with this sponge or not. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing we show that the associated bacterial community of C. crambe is dominated by a single bacterial species affiliated to the Betaproteobacteria. Microscopy analysis of sponge tissue sections using a specific probe and in situ hybridization confirmed its dominance in the sponge mesohyl and a single microbial morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. If confirmed the presence of a simple bacteria community in C. crambe makes this association a very pertinent model to study sponge-bacteria interactions and should allow further research into the possible implication of bacteria in PGA biosynthesis.
Project description:Three methods were examined to cultivate bacteria associated with the marine sponge Haliclona (gellius) sp.: agar plate cultures, liquid cultures, and floating filter cultures. A variety of oligotrophic media were employed, including media with aqueous and organic sponge extracts, bacterial signal molecules, and siderophores. More than 3,900 isolates were analyzed, and 205 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. Media containing low concentrations of mucin or a mixture of peptone and starch were most successful for the isolation of diversity, while the commonly used marine broth did not result in a high diversity among isolates. The addition of antibiotics generally led to a reduced diversity on plates but yielded different bacteria than other media. In addition, diversity patterns of isolates from agar plates, liquid cultures, and floating filters were significantly different. Almost 89% of all isolates were Alphaproteobacteria; however, members of phyla that are less commonly encountered in cultivation studies, such as Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Deltaproteobacteria, were isolated as well. The sponge-associated bacteria were categorized into three different groups. The first group represented OTUs that were also obtained in a clone library from previously analyzed sponge tissue (group 1). Furthermore, we distinguished OTUs that were obtained from sponge tissue (in a previous study) but not from sponge isolates (group 2), and there were also OTUs that were not obtained from sponge tissue but were obtained from sponge isolates (group 3). The 17 OTUs categorized into group 1 represented 10 to 14% of all bacterial OTUs that were present in a large clone library previously generated from Haliclona (gellius) sp. sponge tissue, which is higher than previously reported cultivability scores for sponge-associated bacteria. Six of these 17 OTUs were not obtained from agar plates, which underlines that the use of multiple cultivation methods is worthwhile to increase the diversity of the cultivable microorganisms from sponges.
Project description:Marine sponges host bacterial symbionts with biotechnological potential, yet isolation of true sponge symbionts remains difficult due to their host dependency. Moreover, attempts to grow sponges for their pharmacologically-active compounds outside of their habitat often results in a shift of their microbial community. In this study we evaluate suitable sponge cultivation methods that allow maintenance of both the marine sponge Halichondria panicea and its associated bacteria in an ex situ environment. In addition, we present a method for co-cultivation of sponge explants and microbes separated by a membrane in a multi-chamber device. Tests on ex situ cultivation of H. panicea under different controlled conditions showed that only high water exchange rates in the aquarium enabled maintenance of its dominant symbiont "Candidatus Halichondribacter symbioticus" at a high relative abundance in the sponge body, a prerequisite for co-cultivation. The bacterial enrichment retrieved from co-cultivation contained bacteria from nine different classes in addition to sequences corresponding to "Ca. H. symbioticus". This represents an increase of the cultivable bacterial classes from H. panicea compared to standard isolation techniques on solid media plates. The current study provides insights into sponge-microbe maintenance under ex situ conditions and proposes a new method for the isolation of sponge-associated bacteria.