Project description:Case summary Cytauxzoonosis is a tick-borne disease of cats, and Oklahoma (OK), USA, is considered an enzootic state. To determine the prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis, blood was collected from free-roaming cats, as they are frequently exposed to tick vectors. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of C felis infection in free-roaming cats in north-central Oklahoma and central Iowa (IA). Infection with C felis was determined using DNA extracted from blood and PCR amplification. Blood was collected from 380 free-roaming cats between January and April in 2014 in OK. DNA from C felis was detected in 3/380 (0.8%; 95% confidential interval [CI] 0.22-2.3%). In IA, 292 blood samples were collected between 2012 and 2014. No C felis-infected cats were detected (0; 95% CI 0-0%). Relevance and novel information The prevalence of C felis (0.8%) in north-central OK reported herein was lower than the previously reported 3.4% in domestic cats in OK. Our study supports that the prevalence in a given enzootic area can vary by location and from the pool of cats sampled. None of 291 (0%) cats were infected with C felis in central IA. To date, only one case of cytauxzoonosis in a domestic cat has been reported in IA. It is important to monitor cats for C felis infections in northern US states, as geographic distribution of Amblyomma americanum expands northward. As free-roaming cats have more contact with the tick vectors of C felis, this population allows us to monitor the expansion of C felis distribution.
Project description:We recently described the isolation of a novel influenza virus from swine exhibiting respiratory disease in the United States that is distantly related to human influenza C virus. Based on genetic, biochemical and morphological analysis, the virus was provisionally classified as C/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK). To further understand the genetics and evolution of this novel pathogen, we performed a comprehensive analysis of its sequence and phylogeny. The results demonstrated that C/OK and human influenza C viruses share a conserved array of predicted functional domains in the viral RNA genome replication and viral entry machinery but vary at key functional sites. Furthermore, our evolutionary analysis showed that homologous genes of C/OK and human influenza C viruses diverged from each other an estimated several hundred to several thousand years ago. Taken together, the findings described in this study support and extend our previous observations that C/OK is a genetically and evolutionarily distinct influenza virus in the family Orthomyxoviridae.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the effect of cannabis legalisation on health effects and healthcare utilisation in Colorado (CO), the first state to legalise recreational cannabis, when compared with two control states, New York (NY) and Oklahoma (OK). DESIGN:We used the 2010 to 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilisation Project (HCUP) inpatient databases to compare changes in rates of healthcare utilisation and diagnoses in CO versus NY and OK. SETTING:Population-based, inpatient. PARTICIPANTS:HCUP state-wide data comprising over 28?million individuals and over 16?million hospitalisations across three states. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:We used International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition codes to assess changes in healthcare utilisation specific to various medical diagnoses potentially treated by or exacerbated by cannabis. Diagnoses were classified based on weight of evidence from the National Academy of Science (NAS). Negative binomial models were used to compare rates of admissions between states. RESULTS:In CO compared with NY and OK, respectively, cannabis abuse hospitalisations increased (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.28 and RR 1.16, 95%?CI 1.15 to 1.17; both p<0.0005) post-legalisation. In CO, there was a reduction in total admissions but only when compared with OK (RR 0.97, 95%?CI 0.96 to 0.98, p<0.0005). Length of stay and costs did not change significantly in CO compared with NY or OK. Post-legalisation changes most consistent with NAS included an increase in motor vehicle accidents, alcohol abuse, overdose injury and a reduction in chronic pain admissions (all p<0.05 compared with each control state). CONCLUSIONS:Recreational cannabis legalisation is associated with neutral effects on healthcare utilisation. In line with previous evidence, cannabis liberalisation is linked to an increase in motor vehicle accidents, alcohol abuse, overdose injuries and a decrease in chronic pain admissions. Such population-level effects may help guide future decisions regarding cannabis use, prescription and policy.