Project description:Deep Lake is a hypersaline system in Antarctica (68°33’36.8S, 78°11’48.7E) that is so saline it remains liquid at –20°C (DeMaere et al 2013). The lake is dominated by haloarchaea, comprising a low-complexity community that differs greatly to warm-hot latitude hypersaline systems, is hierarchical structured, and supports a high level of intergenera gene exchange. Metaproteomics was performed on biomass that was collected in the austral summer of 2008 by sequential size fractionation (20 – 3 µm, 3 – 0.8 µm, 0.8 – 0.1 µm). The data were integrated to obtain a systems level view of the active host-virus interactions occurring in this novel aquatic Antarctic system. DeMaere MZ, Williams TJ, Allen MA, Brown MV, Gibson JA, Rich J, Lauro FM, Dyall-Smith M, Davenport KW, Woyke T, Kyrpides NC, Tringe SG, Cavicchioli R (2013) High level of intergenera gene exchange shapes the evolution of haloarchaea in an isolated Antarctic lake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110: 16939-16944
Project description:Deep Lake in Antarctica is a globally isolated, hypersaline system that remains liquid at temperatures down to -20 °C. By analyzing metagenome data and genomes of four isolates we assessed genome variation and patterns of gene exchange to learn how the lake community evolved. The lake is completely and uniformly dominated by haloarchaea, comprising a hierarchically structured, low-complexity community that differs greatly to temperate and tropical hypersaline environments. The four Deep Lake isolates represent distinct genera (?85% 16S rRNA gene similarity and ?73% genome average nucleotide identity) with genomic characteristics indicative of niche adaptation, and collectively account for ?72% of the cellular community. Network analysis revealed a remarkable level of intergenera gene exchange, including the sharing of long contiguous regions (up to 35 kb) of high identity (?100%). Although the genomes of closely related Halobacterium, Haloquadratum, and Haloarcula (>90% average nucleotide identity) shared regions of high identity between species or strains, the four Deep Lake isolates were the only distantly related haloarchaea to share long high-identity regions. Moreover, the Deep Lake high-identity regions did not match to any other hypersaline environment metagenome data. The most abundant species, tADL, appears to play a central role in the exchange of insertion sequences, but not the exchange of high-identity regions. The genomic characteristics of the four haloarchaea are consistent with a lake ecosystem that sustains a high level of intergenera gene exchange while selecting for ecotypes that maintain sympatric speciation. The peculiarities of this polar system restrict which species can grow and provide a tempo and mode for accentuating gene exchange.
Project description:Abstract Between 1992 and 2017, the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) lost ice equivalent to 7.6 ± 3.9 mm of sea level rise. AIS mass loss is mitigated by ice shelves that provide a buttress by regulating ice flow from tributary glaciers. However, ice?shelf stability is threatened by meltwater ponding, which may initiate, or reactivate preexisting, fractures, currently poorly understood processes. Here, through ground penetrating radar (GPR) analysis over a buried lake in the grounding zone of an East Antarctic ice shelf, we present the first field observations of a lake drainage event in Antarctica via vertical fractures. Concurrent with the lake drainage event, we observe a decrease in surface elevation and an increase in Sentinel?1 backscatter. Finally, we suggest that fractures that are initiated or reactivated by lake drainage events in a grounding zone will propagate with ice flow onto the ice shelf itself, where they may have implications for its stability. Key Points We present the first field observations of the rapid drainage of a buried lake via hydrofracture in Antarctica Lake?bed fractures are detected from ground penetrating radar prior to drainage and suggest the lake may have been preconditioned to drain Remote sensing analysis of digital elevation model and Sentinel?1 microwave image differences provide additional lake evolution information