Project description:Here we present the genome of strain Exiguobacterium sp. AT1b, a thermophilic member of the genus Exiguobacterium whose representatives were isolated from various environments along a thermal and physicochemical gradient. This genome was sequenced to be a comparative resource for the study of thermal adaptation with a psychroactive representative of the genus, Exiguobacterium sibiricum strain 255-15, that was previously sequenced by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) (http://genome.ornl.gov/microbial/exig/).
Project description:Syntrophomonas wolfei syntrophically oxidizes short-chain fatty acids (four to eight carbons in length) when grown in coculture with a hydrogen- and/or formate-using methanogen. The oxidation of 3-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA), formed during butyrate metabolism, results in the production of NADH. The enzyme systems involved in NADH reoxidation in S. wolfei are not well understood. The genome of S. wolfei contains a multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase that may be a mechanism for NADH reoxidation. The S. wolfei genes for the multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase (hyd1ABC; SWOL_RS05165, SWOL_RS05170, SWOL_RS05175) and [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation proteins (SWOL_RS05180, SWOL_RS05190, SWOL_RS01625) were coexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant Hyd1ABC was purified and characterized. The purified recombinant Hyd1ABC was a heterotrimer with an ??? configuration and a molecular mass of 115 kDa. Hyd1ABC contained 29.2 ± 1.49 mol of Fe and 0.7 mol of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per mole enzyme. The purified, recombinant Hyd1ABC reduced NAD+ and oxidized NADH without the presence of ferredoxin. The HydB subunit of the S. wolfei multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase lacks two iron-sulfur centers that are present in known confurcating NADH- and ferredoxin-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenases. Hyd1ABC is a NADH-dependent hydrogenase that produces hydrogen from NADH without the need of reduced ferredoxin, which differs from confurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenases. Hyd1ABC provides a mechanism by which S. wolfei can reoxidize NADH produced during syntrophic butyrate oxidation when low hydrogen partial pressures are maintained by a hydrogen-consuming microorganism.IMPORTANCE Our work provides mechanistic understanding of the obligate metabolic coupling that occurs between hydrogen-producing fatty and aromatic acid-degrading microorganisms and their hydrogen-consuming partners in the process called syntrophy (feeding together). The multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase used NADH without the involvement of reduced ferredoxin. The multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase would produce hydrogen from NADH only when hydrogen concentrations were low. Hydrogen production from NADH by Syntrophomonas wolfei would likely cease before any detectable amount of cell growth occurred. Thus, continual hydrogen production requires the presence of a hydrogen-consuming partner to keep hydrogen concentrations low and explains, in part, the obligate requirement that S. wolfei has for a hydrogen-consuming partner organism during growth on butyrate. We have successfully expressed genes encoding a multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase in E. coli, demonstrating that such an approach can be advantageous to characterize complex redox proteins from difficult-to-culture microorganisms.
Project description:Rhizobium aethiopicum sp. nov. is a newly proposed species within the genus Rhizobium. This species includes six rhizobial strains; which were isolated from root nodules of the legume plant Phaseolus vulgaris growing in soils of Ethiopia. The species fixes nitrogen effectively in symbiosis with the host plant P. vulgaris, and is composed of aerobic, Gram-negative staining, rod-shaped bacteria. The genome of type strain HBR26T of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was one of the rhizobial genomes sequenced as a part of the DOE JGI 2014 Genomic Encyclopedia project designed for soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains. The genome sequence is arranged in 62 scaffolds and consists of 6,557,588 bp length, with a 61% G?+?C content and 6221 protein-coding and 86 RNAs genes. The genome of HBR26T contains repABC genes (plasmid replication genes) homologous to the genes found in five different Rhizobium etli CFN42T plasmids, suggesting that HBR26T may have five additional replicons other than the chromosome. In the genome of HBR26T, the nodulation genes nodB, nodC, nodS, nodI, nodJ and nodD are located in the same module, and organized in a similar way as nod genes found in the genome of other known common bean-nodulating rhizobial species. nodA gene is found in a different scaffold, but it is also very similar to nodA genes of other bean-nodulating rhizobial strains. Though HBR26T is distinct on the phylogenetic tree and based on ANI analysis (the highest value 90.2% ANI with CFN42T) from other bean-nodulating species, these nod genes and most nitrogen-fixing genes found in the genome of HBR26T share high identity with the corresponding genes of known bean-nodulating rhizobial species (96-100% identity). This suggests that symbiotic genes might be shared between bean-nodulating rhizobia through horizontal gene transfer. R. aethiopicum sp. nov. was grouped into the genus Rhizobium but was distinct from all recognized species of that genus by phylogenetic analyses of combined sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and glnII. The closest reference type strains for HBR26T were R. etli CFN42T (94% similarity of the combined recA and glnII sequences) and Rhizobium bangladeshense BLR175T (93%). Genomic ANI calculation based on protein-coding genes also revealed that the closest reference strains were R. bangladeshense BLR175T and R. etli CFN42T with ANI values 91.8 and 90.2%, respectively. Nevertheless, the ANI values between HBR26T and BLR175T or CFN42T are far lower than the cutoff value of ANI (>?=?96%) between strains in the same species, confirming that HBR26T belongs to a novel species. Thus, on the basis of phylogenetic, comparative genomic analyses and ANI results, we formally propose the creation of R. aethiopicum sp. nov. with strain HBR26T (=HAMBI 3550T=LMG 29711T) as the type strain. The genome assembly and annotation data is deposited in the DOE JGI portal and also available at European Nucleotide Archive under accession numbers FMAJ01000001-FMAJ01000062.
Project description:The type strain of the prospective 10.1601/nm.30737 sp. nov. ERR11T, was isolated from a nodule of the leguminous tree Erythrina brucei native to Ethiopia. The type strain 10.1601/nm.1463 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T, was isolated from the nodules of Lespedeza cuneata in Beijing, China. The genomes of ERR11T and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T were sequenced by DOE-JGI and deposited at the DOE-JGI genome portal as well as at the European Nucleotide Archive. The genome of ERR11T is 9,163,226 bp in length and has 102 scaffolds, containing 8548 protein-coding and 86 RNA genes. The 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T genome is arranged in 108 scaffolds and consists of 8,201,522 bp long and 7776 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes. Both genomes contain symbiotic genes, which are homologous to the genes found in the complete genome sequence of 10.1601/nm.24498 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+110 T. The genes encoding for nodulation and nitrogen fixation in ERR11T showed high sequence similarity with homologous genes found in the draft genome of peanut-nodulating 10.1601/nm.27386 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DLMG+26795 T. The nodulation genes nolYA-nodD2D1YABCSUIJ-nolO-nodZ of ERR11T and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+10071 T are organized in a similar way to the homologous genes identified in the genomes of 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+110 T, 10.1601/nm.25806 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 and 10.1601/nm.1462 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+05525. The genomes harbor hupSLCFHK and hypBFDE genes that code the expression of hydrogenase, an enzyme that helps rhizobia to uptake hydrogen released by the N2-fixation process and genes encoding denitrification functions napEDABC and norCBQD for nitrate and nitric oxide reduction, respectively. The genome of ERR11T also contains nosRZDFYLX genes encoding nitrous oxide reductase. Based on multilocus sequence analysis of housekeeping genes, the novel species, which contains eight strains formed a unique group close to the 10.1601/nm.25806 branch. Genome Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) calculated between the genome sequences of ERR11T and closely related sequences revealed that strains belonging to 10.1601/nm.25806 branch (10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+15615), were the closest strains to the strain ERR11T with 95.2% ANI. Type strain ERR11T showed the highest DDH predicted value with 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+15615 (58.5%), followed by 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 (53.1%). Nevertheless, the ANI and DDH values obtained between ERR11T and 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DCCBAU+15615 or 10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DUSDA+4 were below the cutoff values (ANI???96.5%; DDH???70%) for strains belonging to the same species, suggesting that ERR11T is a new species. Therefore, based on the phylogenetic analysis, ANI and DDH values, we formally propose the creation of 10.1601/nm.30737 sp. nov. with strain ERR11T (10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DHAMBI+3532 T=10.1601/strainfinder?urlappend=%3Fid%3DLMG+30162 T) as the type strain.
Project description:Fats, oils and greases (FOG) are energy-dense wastes that can be added to anaerobic digesters to substantially increase biomethane recovery via their conversion through long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). However, a better understanding of the ecophysiology of syntrophic LCFA-degrading microbial communities in anaerobic digesters is needed to develop operating strategies that mitigate inhibitory LCFA accumulation from FOG. In this research, DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was coupled with metagenomic sequencing for a genome-centric comparison of oleate (C18:1)-degrading populations in two anaerobic codigesters operated with either a pulse feeding or continuous-feeding strategy. The pulse-fed codigester microcosms converted oleate into methane at over 20% higher rates than the continuous-fed codigester microcosms. Differential coverage binning was demonstrated for the first time to recover population genome bins (GBs) from DNA-SIP metagenomes. About 70% of the 13C-enriched GBs were taxonomically assigned to the Syntrophomonas genus, thus substantiating the importance of Syntrophomonas species to LCFA degradation in anaerobic digesters. Phylogenetic comparisons of 13C-enriched GBs showed that phylogenetically distinct Syntrophomonas GBs were unique to each codigester. Overall, these results suggest that syntrophic populations in anaerobic digesters can have different adaptive capacities, and that selection for divergent populations may be achieved by adjusting reactor operating conditions to maximize biomethane recovery.