Project description:Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the Wolbachia endosymbiont wAna, isolated from Drosophila ananassae and derived from Oxford Nanopore and Illumina sequencing. We anticipate that this will aid in Wolbachia comparative genomics and the assembly of D. ananassae specifically in regions containing extensive lateral gene transfer events.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genes with sex-biased expression often show rapid molecular evolution between species. Previous population genetic and comparative genomic studies of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans revealed that male-biased genes have especially high rates of adaptive evolution. To test if this is also the case for other lineages within the melanogaster group, we investigated gene expression in D. ananassae, a species that occurs in structured populations in tropical and subtropical regions. We used custom-made microarrays and published microarray data to characterize the sex-biased expression of 129 D. ananassae genes whose D. melanogaster orthologs had been classified previously as male-biased, female-biased, or unbiased in their expression and had been studied extensively at the population-genetic level. For 43 of these genes we surveyed DNA sequence polymorphism in a natural population of D. ananassae and determined divergence to the sister species D. atripex and D. phaeopleura. RESULTS: Sex-biased expression is generally conserved between D. melanogaster and D. ananassae, with the majority of genes exhibiting the same bias in the two species. However, about one-third of the genes have either gained or lost sex-biased expression in one of the species and a small proportion of genes (approximately 4%) have changed bias from one sex to the other. The male-biased genes of D. ananassae show evidence of positive selection acting at the protein level. However, the signal of adaptive protein evolution for male-biased genes is not as strong in D. ananassae as it is in D. melanogaster and is limited to genes with conserved male-biased expression in both species. Within D. ananassae, a significant signal of adaptive evolution is also detected for female-biased and unbiased genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extend previous observations of widespread adaptive protein evolution to an independent Drosophila lineage, the D. ananassae subgroup. However, the rate of adaptive evolution is not greater for male-biased genes than for female-biased or unbiased genes, which suggests that there are differences in sex-biased gene evolution between the two lineages.
Project description:In Drosophila, many studies have examined the short- or long-term evolution occurring across synonymous sites. Few, however, have examined both the recent and long-term evolution to gain a complete view of this selection. Here we have analyzed Drosophila ananassae DNA polymorphism and divergence data using several different methods, and have identified evidence of positive selection favoring preferred codons in both recent and long-term evolutionary time scale. Further in D. ananassae, the strength of selection for preferred codons was stronger on the X chromosome compared to the autosomes. We show that this stronger selection is not due to higher gene expression of X-linked genes. Analysis of the selectively neutral introns indicated that the X chromosome also had a preference for GC over AT nucleotides, potentially from GC-biased gene conversions (gcBGCs) that can also affect the base composition of synonymous sites. Thus selection for preferred codons and gcBGC both seem to be partially responsible for shaping the D. ananassae synonymous site evolution.
Project description:Coevolution between Drosophila and its endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis has many intriguing aspects. For example, Drosophila ananassae hosts two forms of W. pipientis genomes: One being the infectious bacterial genome and the other integrated into the host nuclear genome. Here, we characterize the infectious and integrated genomes of W. pipientis infecting D. ananassae (wAna), by genome sequencing 15 strains of D. ananassae that have either the infectious or integrated wAna genomes. Results indicate evolutionarily stable maternal transmission for the infectious wAna genome suggesting a relatively long-term coevolution with its host. In contrast, the integrated wAna genome showed pseudogene-like characteristics accumulating many variants that are predicted to have deleterious effects if present in an infectious bacterial genome. Phylogenomic analysis of sequence variation together with genotyping by polymerase chain reaction of large structural variations indicated several wAna variants among the eight infectious wAna genomes. In contrast, only a single wAna variant was found among the seven integrated wAna genomes examined in lines from Africa, south Asia, and south Pacific islands suggesting that the integration occurred once from a single infectious wAna genome and then spread geographically. Further analysis revealed that for all D. ananassae we examined with the integrated wAna genomes, the majority of the integrated wAna genomic regions is represented in at least two copies suggesting a double integration or single integration followed by an integrated genome duplication. The possible evolutionary mechanism underlying the widespread geographical presence of the duplicate integration of the wAna genome is an intriguing question remaining to be answered.
Project description:Lateral gene transfer (LGT) from bacterial Wolbachia endosymbionts has been detected in ~20% of arthropod and nematode genome sequencing projects. Many of these transfers are large and contain a substantial part of the Wolbachia genome.Here, we re-sequenced three D. ananassae genomes from Asia and the Pacific that contain large LGTs from Wolbachia. We find that multiple copies of the Wolbachia genome are transferred to the Drosophila nuclear genome in all three lines. In the D. ananassae line from Indonesia, the copies of Wolbachia DNA in the nuclear genome are nearly identical in size and sequence yielding an even coverage of mapped reads over the Wolbachia genome. In contrast, the D. ananassae lines from Hawaii and India show an uneven coverage of mapped reads over the Wolbachia genome suggesting that different parts of these LGTs are present in different copy numbers. In the Hawaii line, we find that this LGT is underrepresented in third instar larvae indicative of being heterochromatic. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes confirms that the LGT in the Hawaii line is heterochromatic and represents ~20% of the sequence on chromosome 4 (dot chromosome, Muller element F).This collection of related lines contain large lateral gene transfers composed of multiple Wolbachia genomes that constitute >2% of the D. ananassae genome (~5 Mbp) and partially explain the abnormally large size of chromosome 4 in D. ananassae.
Project description:The development of genomic resources in non-model taxa is essential for understanding the genetic basis of biological diversity. Although the genomes of many Drosophila species have been sequenced, most of the phenotypic diversity in this genus remains to be explored. To facilitate the genetic analysis of interspecific and intraspecific variation, we have generated new genomic resources for seven species and subspecies in the D. ananassae species subgroup. We have generated large amounts of transcriptome sequence data for D. ercepeae, D. merina, D. bipectinata, D. malerkotliana malerkotliana, D. m. pallens, D. pseudoananassae pseudoananassae, and D. p. nigrens. de novo assembly resulted in contigs covering more than half of the predicted transcriptome and matching an average of 59% of annotated genes in the complete genome of D. ananassae. Most contigs, corresponding to an average of 49% of D. ananassae genes, contain sequence polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers. Subsets of these markers were validated by genotyping the progeny of inter- and intraspecific crosses. The ananassae subgroup is an excellent model system for examining the molecular basis of speciation and phenotypic evolution. The new genomic resources will facilitate the genetic analysis of inter- and intraspecific differences in this lineage. Transcriptome sequencing provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify molecular markers at nearly single-gene density, and is equally applicable to any non-model taxa.
Project description:The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (?5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5' ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains.
Project description:Three distinctly different alleles of the metallothionein gene Mtn have been identified in natural Drosophila melanogaster populations: Mtn.3, Mtn1, and Dp(Mtn1), where the latter designates a tandem duplication of Mtn1. In Drosophila simulans, only Mtn.3-type alleles have been found. It has been suggested that Mtn.3 is the ancestral allele and demonstrated that a presumed two-step transition from Mtn.3 to Mtn1 to Dp(Mtn1) is accompanied by an approximate 5-fold increase in RNA levels. We analyzed the evolutionary genetics of the Mtn locus of Drosophila ananassae, a distant relative of D. melanogaster and D. simulans within the melanogaster species group. The Mtn gene of D. ananassae is most similar to Mtn.3: (i) it is identical with Mtn.3 at the amino acid level, but differs from Mtn1 in its terminal codon; (ii) its 3' UTR contains a characteristic extra DNA segment of about 50 bp which is present in Mtn.3, but lacking in Mtn1; (iii) duplications of Mtn were not found in a worldwide sample of 110 wild D. ananassae chromosomes. However, the intron of the Mtn gene in D. ananassae is only 69 bp long, whereas the length of the Mtn.3 and Mtn1 introns is 265 bp; and it lacks a polypyrimidine stretch upstream of the 3' splice site in contrast to the much greater pyrimidine-richness found in the Mtn.3 and Mtn1 introns. A short intron (67 bp) was also identified in a D. pseudoobscura Mtn allele, suggesting that the short intron is the ancestral form and that the transition from the short to the long intron occurred within the melanogaster species group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Project description:Inferring the origin, population structure, and demographic history of a species is a major objective of population genetics. Although many organisms have been analyzed, the genetic structures of subdivided populations are not well understood. Here we analyze Drosophila ananassae, a highly substructured, cosmopolitan, and human-commensal species distributed in the tropical, subtropical, and mildly temperate regions of the world. We adopt a multilocus approach (with 10 neutral loci) using 16 population samples covering almost the entire species range (Asia, Australia, and America). Analyzed with our recently developed Bayesian method, 5 populations in Southeast Asia are found to be central, while the other 11 are peripheral. These 5 central populations were sampled from localities that belonged to a single landmass ("Sundaland") during the late Pleistocene ( approximately 18,000 years ago), when sea level was approximately 120 m below the present level. The inferred migration routes of D. ananassae out of Sundaland seem to parallel those of humans in this region. Strong evidence for a population size expansion is seen particularly in the ancestral populations.
Project description:siren1 and siren2 are novel alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh)-derived chimeric genes in the Drosophila bipectinata complex. D. ananassae, however, harbors a single homolog of these genes. Like other Adh-derived chimeric genes, siren evolved adaptively shortly after it was formed. These changes likely shifted the catalytic activity of siren.