Project description:Background: Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable feedstock for the microbial production of fuels. To release the major fermentable sugars such as glucose and xylose, pretreatment, hydrolysis, and subsequent conditioning of biomass feedstock are needed. During this process, many toxic compounds are produced or introduced which subsequently inhibit microbial growth and in many cases the production titer and rate. An understanding of the toxic effects of compounds found in hydrolysate on the fermentation microorganism is critical to improving biofuel yields in the process. One of the inhibitory compounds is furfural, liberated from hemicelluloses, which strongly inhibits the cell growth and ethanol production especially from xylose. Zymomonas mobilis is a capable ethanologenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and high levels of ethanol tolerance. The development of robust biocatalyst to tolerate the lignocellulosic pretreatment inhibitors is one of the key elements for economic biofuel production. Results: In this study, the molecular responses of Z. mobilis to furfural, one major pretreatment inhibitor, were investigated using transcriptomic approaches of chip-based microarray. Furfural shock time course experiment with 3 g/L furfural supplemented when cells reach exponential phase and stress response experiment in the presence of 2 g/L furfural from the beginning of fermentation were carried out to study the short and long-term effect of furfural on 8b physiological and transcriptional profiles. The presence and supplementation of furfural negatively affect 8b growth in terms of final biomass and the fermentation time. Transcriptomic studies indicated that the response of 8b to furfural is dynamic, complex and differences exist between short-term shock response and long-term stress response. However, the gene function categories are similar with most downregulated genes related to translation and biosynthesis, while the furfural-upregulated genes were mostly related to cellular processes of general stress response and energy metabolism. Conclusions: Similar to previous report that acetate inhibited the growth of Z. mobilis 8b in RM using glucose or xylose as carbon source, the existence or supplementation of another major hydrolysate inhibitor furfural also inhibited 8b growth with slowing the substrate utilization and ethanol production. The difference between carbon sources is more dramatic than that of the major hydrolysate inhibitors of both NH4OAc (GSE57553) and furfural (this study). Several gene targets have been selected for genetic studies with promising preliminary results. Overall design: In this study, the molecular responses of Z. mobilis to furfural, one major pretreatment inhibitor, were investigated using transcriptomic approaches of chip-based microarray. Furfural shock time course experiment with 3 g/L furfural supplemented when cells reach exponential phase (0min before furfural shock, 15min and 60min post-furfural shock) and stress response experiment in the presence of 2 g/L furfural from the beginning of fermentation were carried out to study the short and long-term effect of furfural on 8b physiological and transcriptional profiles. Three biological replicates were used for each condition.
Project description:Using Affymetrix GeneChips, we analyzed expression profiles of SP cells from EOM and TA. 348 differentially expressed transcripts defined the EOM-SP transcriptome: 229 upregulated in EOM-SP and 119 in TA-SP. Keywords: Expression Profiling Overall design: Six independently separated EOM and six TA SP cell preparations were used for microarray analysis using the Affymetrix® Mouse 430 ver 2.0 GeneChip arrays.
Project description:In rainbow trout, type A spermatogonia can be split into SP cells and non-SP cells by the ability to exclude Hoechst 33342 dye (H33342). The H33342 fluorescence of SP cells are lower than that of non-SP cells, after H33342 staining. To investigate whether SP cells were transcriptomically distinct from non-SP cells, we compared the transcriptome of these cells. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate SP cells and non-SP cells from the type A spermatogonia in rainbow trout. To compensate unavailability of genetically uniform rainbow trout in independent sampling, SP cells and non-SP cells were collected at 3 times from 3 different parental fish groups. This experimental design allowed us to estimate effects specific to each parental fish genotype on mRNA expression in SP cells by a statistical modeling and to exclude the effects in subsequent analysis.