Project description:Aeromonas veronii strain B565 was isolated from aquaculture pond sediment in China. We present here the complete genome sequence of B565 and compare it with 2 published genome sequences of pathogenic strains in the Aeromonas genus. The result represents an independent stepwise acquisition of virulence factors of pathogenic strains in this genus.
Project description:Aeromonas are Gram-negative, non-spore forming rods belonging to the family Aeromonadaceae within the class Gammaproteobacteria. These facultative anaerobic bacteria are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and have a broad host range. We present here the complete genome sequence of multidrug-resistant A. veronii strain MS-18-37 isolated from diseased catfish. The genome size of this strain is 4,683,931, with a G+C content of 58.60%. Annotation reveals multiple genes that encode antibiotic resistance. The complete genome sequence of A. veronii strain MS-18-37 will provide a genetic basis for understanding molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and exchange in Aeromonas.
Project description:Aeromonas veronii strain A134 was isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa colonies collected from Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel. The Aeromonas culture media inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (strain MGK). The crude extract of a large-scale culture of A. veronii A134 was separated in a few chromatographic steps to yield three new secondary metabolites, 9-chlorolumichrome (1), veronimide (2) and veronipyrazine (3), along with a known lumichrome and several known diketopiperazines. The structures of the new compounds were established by analyses of the data from 1D and 2D NMR experiments and HRMS data of the compounds, as well as a single-crystal x-ray analysis of synthetic 1. The structure elucidation and proposed biogenesis of the new compounds are described below.
Project description:Aeromonas veronii is a Gram-negative species ubiquitous in different aquatic environments and capable of causing a variety of diseases to a broad host range. Aeromonas species have the capability to carry and acquire antimicrobial resistance (AMR) elements, and currently multi-drug resistant (MDR) Aeromonas isolates are commonly found across the world. A. veronii strain MS-17-88 is a MDR strain isolated from catfish in the southeastern United States. The present study was undertaken to uncover the mechanism of resistance in MDR A. veronii strain MS-17-88 through the detection of genomic features. To achieve this, genomic DNA was extracted, sequenced, and assembled. The A. veronii strain MS-17-88 genome comprised 5,178,226-bp with 58.6% G+C, and it encoded several AMR elements, including imiS, ampS, mcr-7.1, mcr-3, catB2, catB7, catB1, floR, vat(F), tet(34), tet(35), tet(E), dfrA3, and tetR. The phylogeny and resistance profile of a large collection of A. veronii strains, including MS-17-88, were evaluated. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between MS-17-88 and strain Ae5 isolated from fish in China and ARB3 strain isolated from pond water in Japan, indicating a common ancestor of these strains. Analysis of phage elements revealed 58 intact, 63 incomplete, and 15 questionable phage elements among the 53 A. veronii genomes. The average phage element number is 2.56 per genome, and strain MS-17-88 is one of two strains having the maximum number of identified prophage elements (6 elements each). The profile of resistance against various antibiotics across the 53 A. veronii genomes revealed the presence of tet(34), mcr-7.1, mcr-3, and dfrA3 in all genomes (100%). By comparison, sul1 and sul2 were detected in 7.5% and 1.8% of A. veronii genomes. Nearly 77% of strains carried tet(E), and 7.5% of strains carried floR. This result suggested a low abundance and prevalence of sulfonamide and florfenicol resistance genes compared with tetracycline resistance among A. veronii strains. Overall, the present study provides insights into the resistance patterns among 53 A. veronii genomes, which can inform therapeutic options for fish affected by A. veronii.
Project description:273 bacterial strains were isolated from 20 Chinese longsnout catfish samples. The biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii on the basis of Vitek GNI+ card. Furthermore, 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoD sequences of the representative strain PY50 were sequenced and showed high similarity with A. veronii bv. veronii in Genbank. Antibiotic-resistance of the representative strain PY50 was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was susceptible and moderately susceptible to 13 and 4 of the 21 antimicrobial agents tested. Extracellular products of strain PY50 contained gelatinase, lecithinase, elastase, most of lipase and lipopolysaccharide. Virulence of strain PY50 and extracellular products to Chinese longsnout catfish were also tested, and LD50 were about 3.47×10(4) CFU per fish and 11.22 ?g per fish in intraperitoneal injection respectively. This is the first report that A. veronii bv. veronii was the pathogenic agent of ulcerative syndrome in Chinese longsnout catfish.
Project description:Aeromonas veronii strain Hm21 was isolated from the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana and is used for genetic studies. We present here the 4.71-Mbp genome with a 56-kb plasmid and identify the mutations present in strains commonly used for genetic engineering.
Project description:Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative species abundant in aquatic environments that causes disease in humans as well as terrestrial and aquatic animals. In the current study, 41 publicly available A. veronii genomes were compared to investigate distribution of putative virulence genes, global dissemination of pathotypes, and potential mechanisms of virulence. The complete genome of A. veronii strain ML09-123 from an outbreak of motile aeromonas septicemia in farm-raised catfish in the southeastern United States was included. Dissemination of A. veronii strain types was discovered in dispersed geographical locations. Isolate ML09-123 is highly similar to Chinese isolate TH0426, suggesting the two strains have a common origin and may represent a pathotype impacting aquaculture in both countries. Virulence of strain ML09-123 in catfish in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed experimentally. Subsystem category disposition showed the majority of genomes exhibit similar distribution of genomic elements. The type I secretion system (T1SS), type II secretion system (T2SS), type 4 pilus (T4P), and flagellum core elements are conserved in all A. veronii genomes, whereas the type III secretion system (T3SS), type V secretion system (T5SS), type VI secretion system (T6SS), and tight adherence (TAD) system demonstrate variable dispersal. Distribution of mobile elements is dependent on host and geographic origin, suggesting this species has undergone considerable genetic exchange. The data presented here lends insight into the genomic variation of A. veronii and identifies a pathotype impacting aquaculture globally.
Project description:Purpose:The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and transmission mechanism of mcr-3 in Aeromonas spp. isolated from chicken cloaca. Materials and Methods:A. veronii w55 was isolated from chicken in 2008. PCR assay was used to detect mcr genes and putative circular intermediate. Susceptibility testing was identified by the microdilution method. WGS was performed to obtain the whole sequence. S1-PFGE and DNA southern hybridization were used to study the location of mcr-3.6. Results:PCR-based analysis indicated that 1 out of 55 Aeromonas spp. isolates was mcr-3-positive. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the strain A. veronii w55 belonged to novel sequence type ST514 and had two adjacent chromosomally located mcr variants, mcr-3.6 and mcr-3-like. The mcr-3.6 and mcr-3-like genes showed 93.67% and 82.84% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, to original mcr-3 from E. coli. A. veronii w55 also exhibited resistance to extended-spectrum ?-lactams and was positive for bla PER-3, and this is the first time to report bla PER-3 in A. veronii. Genetic environment analysis revealed that the segment of mcr-3.6-mcr-3-like-dgkA was flanked by five insertion sequence elements originated from Aeromonas species, and the structure of ISAs2-ISAhy2-ISAs20-mcr-3.6-mcr-3-like-dgkA-ISAs2 was designated as a novel transposon Tn6518, in which an 8405-bp circular intermediate carrying two mcr-3 variants can be looped out. Conclusion:This result suggested the mcr-3 variant genes could be disseminated between various Aeromonas species via transposon-mediated transmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem, which is essential for the metabolism, health and immunity of host. Many diseases have been shown to be closely related to the alteration of intestinal flora. Aeromonas veronii as a conditioned pathogen can cause disease in Yangtze finless porpoise through intestinal infections. However, it is not clear whether the disease caused by Aeromonas veronii is related to changes of intestinal flora. In the current study, the diversity and composition of gut microbiota in the healthy and Aeromonas veronii-infected Yangtze finless porpoise were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing to further investigate the potential association between intestinal flora alteration and pathogen invasion. RESULTS:A total of 127,3276 high-quality sequences were achieved and 2465 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were in common among all samples. The results of alpha diversity showed that there was no obvious difference in richness and diversity between healthy and Aeromonas veronii-infected Yangtze finless porpoise. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla in all samples. In addition, the healthy Yangtze finless porpoise exhibited higher abundance of Firmicutes and Fusobacteria than Aeromonas veronii-infected Yangtze finless porpoise, while, the level of Proteobacteria was decreased. At the genus level, Paeniclostridium and Paraclostridium were the predominant bacteria genera in the CK (healthy Yangtze finless porpoise) group. In the DIS (Aeromonas veronii-infected Yangtze finless porpoise) group, Lactobacillus and unidentified_Enterobacteriaceae were the dominant bacteria genera and the proportion of Paeniclostridium, Paraclostridium, Terrisporobacter, Cetobacterium, Candidatus Arthromitus, Terrabacter and Dechloromonas were reduced. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, our results showed that Aeromonas veronii infection can alter the gut microbiota of the Yangtze finless porpoise by affecting the number of harmful bacteria and beneficial bacteria.
Project description:Aeromonas are bacteria widely distributed in the environment, and some species are able to cause infections in humans, of which diarrhea is the most common. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance associated characteristics in A. veronii biovar sobria strain 312M isolated from diarrheal stools. For this, the genome sequencing and phenotypical tests were performed. The draft genome annotation revealed several complete pathways associated with carbon metabolism and a mucin-desulfating sulfatase which may contribute to intestine colonization, and a large number of virulence-associated genes encoding structures associated with adhesion, toxins, and secretion systems. The strain exhibited swimming and swarming motility, biofilm formation, and hemolytic activity. It was resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Although a cphA gene encoding a narrow-spectrum carbapenase was identified in the strain genome, no carbapenemase activity was detected in the antimicrobial susceptibility test. When compared with other A. veronii with complete genomes, the main differences in virulence characteristics are related to lateral flagella and type III and VI secretion systems; the antimicrobial resistance spectrum also varied among strains. The results indicated that A. veronii biovar sobria 312M presents high virulence potential and resistance to limited classes of antimicrobials.