Project description:Origanum oil (ORO), garlic oil (GAO), and peppermint oil (PEO) were shown to effectively lower methane production, decrease abundance of methanogens, and change abundances of several bacterial populations important to feed digestion in vitro. In this study, the impact of these essential oils (EOs, at 0.50 g/L), on the rumen bacterial community composition was further examined using the recently developed RumenBactArray. Overall design: In vitro rumen mixed cultures (three replicates) received 0.50 g/L each EO in the present study. The control culture (three replicates) that did not receive EO was included in parallel.
Project description:Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are increasingly incorporated into consumer products that are disposed into sewage. In wastewater treatment, MNMs adsorb to activated sludge biomass where they may impact biological wastewater treatment performance, including nutrient removal. Here, we studied MNM effects on bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), specifically polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), biosynthesis because of its importance to enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal (EBPR). Activated sludge was sampled from an anoxic selector of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and PHB-containing bacteria were concentrated by density gradient centrifugation. After starvation to decrease intracellular PHB stores, bacteria were nutritionally augmented to promote PHB biosynthesis while being exposed to either MNMs (TiO2 or Ag) or to Ag salts (each at a concentration of 5 mg L-1). Cellular PHB concentration and PhyloChip community composition were analyzed. The final bacterial community composition differed from activated sludge, demonstrating that laboratory enrichment was selective. Still, PHB was synthesized to near-activated sludge levels. Ag salts altered final bacterial communities, although MNMs did not. PHB biosynthesis was diminished with Ag (salt or MNMs), indicating the potential for Ag-MNMs to physiologically impact EBPR through the effects of dissolved Ag ions on PHB producers. 18 samples; Triplicate PHB-enriched bacterial communities recovered from activated sludge were exposed to nanoparticle (TiO2 or Ag) or AgNO3 (as a silver control) or were not exposed to an nanoparticles (control) to determine if the naoparticles affected PHB production.
Project description:We have designed and experimentally validated the BactoChip, a 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray for simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple bacterial species of clinical interest. The Bactochip microarray targets a novel set of high-resolution marker genes, those genes that most unequivocally characterized each bacterial species. The accuracy of the BactoChip microarray was evaluated using the labeled total DNA of single bacterial species at different concentrations (from 65ng to more than 250ng). The specificity of the developed array was further validated using mixed cultures containing up to 15 different bacterial species in even or staggered amount. We employed the Agilent 'Custom HD-CGH 8x15k Array" (catalogue number: G4427A) and the Agilent'Genomic DNA ULS labeling Kit" (catalogue number: 5190-0419). The microarray successfully distinguished among bacterial species from 21 different genera. The BactoChip additionally proved accurate in determining species-level relative abundances over a 10-fold dynamic range in complex bacterial communities. In combination with the continually increasing number of sequenced bacterial genomes, future iterations of the technology could enable to highly accurate clinically-oriented tools for rapid assessment of bacterial community composition and relative abundances.