Project description:Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C(-) monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C(-) monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1), which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2), promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C(-) monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C(-) monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.
Project description:The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is highly expressed in monocytes/macrophages. However, its roles in monopoiesis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of C/EBP? in monopoiesis. Further subdivision of monocytes revealed that Cebpb messenger RNA was highly upregulated in Ly6C- monocytes in bone marrow. Accordingly, the number of Ly6C- monocytes was significantly reduced in Cebpb-/- mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments and Mx1-Cre-mediated deletion of Cebpb revealed a cell-intrinsic and monocyte-specific requirement for C/EBP? in monopoiesis. In Cebpb-/- mice, turnover of Ly6C- monocytes was highly accelerated and apoptosis of Ly6C- monocytes was increased. Expression of Csf1r, which encodes a receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor, was significantly reduced in Ly6C- monocytes of Cebpb-/- mice. C/EBP? bound to positive regulatory elements of Csf1r and promoted its transcription. Collectively, these results indicate that C/EBP? is a critical factor for Ly6C- monocyte survival, at least in part through upregulation of Csf1r.
Project description:Progressive splenomegaly is a hallmark of visceral leishmaniasis in humans, canids, and rodents. In experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, splenomegaly is accompanied by pronounced changes in microarchitecture, including expansion of the red pulp vascular system, neovascularization of the white pulp, and remodeling of the stromal cell populations that define the B-cell and T-cell compartments. Here, we show that Ly6C/G(+) (Gr-1(+)) cells, including neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, accumulate in the splenic red pulp during infection. Cell depletion using monoclonal antibody against either Ly6C/G(+) (Gr-1; RB6) or Ly6G(+) (1A8) cells increased parasite burden. In contrast, depletion of Ly6C/G(+) cells, but not Ly6G(+) cells, halted the progressive remodeling of Meca-32(+) and CD31(+) red pulp vasculature. Strikingly, neither treatment affected white pulp neovascularization or the remodeling of the fibroblastic reticular cell and follicular dendritic cell networks. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized compartment-dependent selectivity to the process of splenic vascular remodeling during experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, attributable to Ly6C(+) inflammatory monocytes.
Project description:Mononuclear phagocytes, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, contribute to tissue integrity as well as to innate and adaptive immune defense. Emerging evidence for labor division indicates that manipulation of these cells could bear therapeutic potential. However, specific ontogenies of individual populations and the overall functional organization of this cellular network are not well defined. Here we report a fate-mapping study of the murine monocyte and macrophage compartment taking advantage of constitutive and conditional CX(3)CR1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase expression. We have demonstrated that major tissue-resident macrophage populations, including liver Kupffer cells and lung alveolar, splenic, and peritoneal macrophages, are established prior to birth and maintain themselves subsequently during adulthood independent of replenishment by blood monocytes. Furthermore, we have established that short-lived Ly6C(+) monocytes constitute obligatory steady-state precursors of blood-resident Ly6C(-) cells and that the abundance of Ly6C(+) blood monocytes dynamically controls the circulation lifespan of their progeny.
Project description:Chromatin status of murine blood Ly6C+ and Ly6C- monocytes indicates that both population share K4me3 marks (promoters) while Ly6C- monocytes establish de novo enhancers (K4me1, K4me2) during differentiation Overall design: Monocytes were isolated from murine blood with CD115 biotin MACS and subsequently stained. The cells were fixed and afterwards FACS sorted. 20.000-50.000 monocytes were sorted from each population and analyzed for K4me1, K4me2, K4me3 and K27ac in duplicates (except Ly6Cint monocytes)
Project description:Monocytes consist of two well-defined subsets, the Ly6C+ and Ly6C- monocytes. Both CD11b+ myeloid cells populations have been proposed to infiltrate tissues during inflammation. While infiltration of Ly6C+ monocytes is an established pathogenic factor during hepatic inflammation, the role of Ly6C- monocytes remains elusive. Mice suffering experimental African trypanosome infection die from systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that is initiated by phagocytosis of parasites by liver myeloid cells and culminates in apoptosis/necrosis of liver myeloid and parenchymal cells that reduces host survival. C57BL/6 mice are considered as trypanotolerant to Trypanosoma congolense infection. We have reported that in these animals, IL-10, produced among others by myeloid cells, limits the liver damage caused by pathogenic TNF-producing Ly6C+ monocytes, ensuring prolonged survival. Here, the heterogeneity and dynamics of liver myeloid cells in T. congolense-infected C57/BL6 mice was further dissected. Moreover, the contribution of Ly6C- monocytes to trypanotolerance was investigated. By using FACS analysis and adoptive transfer experiments, we found that the accumulation of Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages in the liver of infected mice coincided with a drop in the pool of Ly6C+ monocytes. Pathogenic TNF mainly originated from Ly6C+ monocytes while Ly6C- monocytes and macrophages were major and equipotent sources of IL-10 within myeloid cells. Moreover, Nr4a1 (Nur77) transcription factor-dependent Ly6C- monocytes exhibited IL-10-dependent and cell contact-dependent regulatory properties contributing to trypanotolerance by suppressing the production of TNF by Ly6C+ monocytes and by promoting the differentiation of the latter cells into macrophages. Thus, Ly6C- monocytes can dampen liver damage caused by an extensive Ly6C+ monocyte-associated inflammatory immune response in T. congolense trypanotolerant animals. In a more general context, Ly6C- or Ly6C+ monocyte targeting may represent a therapeutic approach in liver pathogenicity induced by chronic infection.