Project description:Plant somatic embryos are widely used in the fields of germplasm conservation, breeding for genetic engineering and artificial seed production. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in somatic embryogenesis (SE) regulation. However, their regulatory roles during various stages of SE remain unclear. In this study, six types of embryogenic samples of Lilium pumilum DC. Fisch., including organogenic callus, embryogenic callus induced for 4 weeks, embryogenic callus induced for 6 weeks, globular embryos, torpedo embryos and cotyledon embryos, were prepared for small RNA sequencing. The results revealed a total of 2,378,760 small RNA reads, among which the most common size was 24 nt. Four hundred and fifty-two known miRNAs, belonging to more than 86 families, 57 novel miRNAs and 40 miRNA*s were identified. The 86 known miRNA families were sorted according to an alignment with their homologs across 24 land plants into the following four categories: 23 highly conserved, 4 moderately conserved, 15 less conserved and 44 species-specific miRNAs. Differentially expressed known miRNAs were identified during various stages of SE. Subsequently, the expression levels of 12 differentially expressed miRNAs and 4 targets were validated using qRT-PCR. In addition, six samples were mixed in equal amounts for transcript sequencing, and the sequencing data were used as transcripts for miRNA target prediction. A total of 66,422 unigenes with an average length of 800 bp were assembled from 56,258,974 raw reads. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment indicated that 38,004 and 15,497 unigenes were successfully assigned to GO terms and KEGG pathways, respectively. Among the unigenes, 2,182 transcripts were predicted to be targets for 396 known miRNAs. The potential targets of the identified miRNAs were mostly classified into the following GO terms: cell, binding and metabolic process. Enriched KEGG analysis demonstrated that carbohydrate metabolism was the predominant pathway in Lilium SE. Thus, we performed systemic characterization, homology comparisons and profiling of miRNA expression, and we constructed an miRNA-target network during Lilium SE for the first time. Our findings establish a foundation for the further exploration of critical genes and elucidation of SE in Lilium.
Project description:Lilium is a world famous fragrant bulb flower with high ornamental and economic values, and significant differences in fragrance are found among different Lilium genotypes. In order to explore the mechanism underlying the different fragrances, the floral scents of Lilium 'Sibeia', with a strong fragrance, and Lilium 'Novano', with a very faint fragrance, were collected in vivo using a dynamic headspace technique. These scents were identified using automated thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS) at different flowering stages. We used RNA-Seq technique to determine the petal transcriptome at the full-bloom stage and analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to investigate the molecular mechanism of floral scent biosynthesis. The results showed that a significantly higher amount of Lilium 'Siberia' floral scent was released compared with Lilium 'Novano'. Moreover, monoterpenes played a dominant role in the floral scent of Lilium 'Siberia'; therefore, it is believed that the different emissions of monoterpenes mainly contributed to the difference in the floral scent between the two Lilium genotypes. Transcriptome sequencing analysis indicated that ~29.24 Gb of raw data were generated and assembled into 124,233 unigenes, of which 35,749 unigenes were annotated. Through a comparison of gene expression between these two Lilium genotypes, 6,496 DEGs were identified. The genes in the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway showed significantly different expression levels. The gene expressions of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate synthase (HDS), 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR), isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI), and geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPS/GGPS), were upregulated in Lilium 'Siberia' compared to Lilium 'Novano', and two monoterpene synthase genes, ocimene synthase gene (OCS) and myrcene synthase gene (MYS), were also expressed at higher levels in the tepals of Lilium 'Siberia', which was consistent with the monoterpene release amounts. We demonstrated that the high activation levels of the pathways contributed to monoterpene biosynthesis in Lilium 'Siberia' resulting in high accumulations and emissions of monoterpenes, which led to the difference in fragrance between these two Lilium genotypes.
Project description:Supernumerary B chromosomes were found in Lilium amabile (2n = 2x = 24), an endemic Korean lily that grows in the wild throughout the Korean Peninsula. The extra B chromosomes do not affect the host-plant morphology; therefore, whole transcriptome analysis was performed in 0B and 1B plants to identify differentially expressed genes. A total of 154,810 transcripts were obtained from over 10 Gbp data by de novo assembly. By mapping the raw reads to the de novo transcripts, we identified 7,852 differentially expressed genes (log2FC > |10|), in which 4,059 and 3,794 were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in 1B plants compared to 0B plants. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that various differentially expressed genes were involved in cellular processes including the cell cycle, chromosome breakage and repair, and microtubule formation; all of which may be related to the occurrence and maintenance of B chromosomes. Our data provide insight into transcriptomic changes and evolution of plant B chromosomes and deliver an informative database for future study of B chromosome transcriptomes in the Korean lily.