Project description:Low-cost Illumina sequencing of clinically-important bacterial pathogens has generated thousands of publicly available genomic datasets. Analyzing these genomes and extracting relevant information for each pathogen and the associated clinical phenotypes requires not only resources and bioinformatic skills but organism-specific knowledge. In light of these issues, we created Staphopia, an analysis pipeline, database and application programming interface, focused on Staphylococcus aureus, a common colonizer of humans and a major antibiotic-resistant pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of hospital and community-associated infections. Written in Python, Staphopia's analysis pipeline consists of submodules running open-source tools. It accepts raw FASTQ reads as an input, which undergo quality control filtration, error correction and reduction to a maximum of approximately 100× chromosome coverage. This reduction significantly reduces total runtime without detrimentally affecting the results. The pipeline performs de novo assembly-based and mapping-based analysis. Automated gene calling and annotation is performed on the assembled contigs. Read-mapping is used to call variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertion/deletions) against a reference S. aureus chromosome (N315, ST5). We ran the analysis pipeline on more than 43,000 S. aureus shotgun Illumina genome projects in the public European Nucleotide Archive database in November 2017. We found that only a quarter of known multi-locus sequence types (STs) were represented but the top 10 STs made up 70% of all genomes. methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 64% of all genomes. Using the Staphopia database we selected 380 high quality genomes deposited with good metadata, each from a different multi-locus ST, as a non-redundant diversity set for studying S. aureus evolution. In addition to answering basic science questions, Staphopia could serve as a potential platform for rapid clinical diagnostics of S. aureus isolates in the future. The system could also be adapted as a template for other organism-specific databases.
Project description:A potentially therapeutic Twort-like myophage, Esa1, with specificity toward Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from lake water. We report the complete genome sequence of ESa1, assembled using both MinION and Illumina MiSeq reads, consisting of 153,106?bp, with 30.3% GC content, 253 protein coding sequences, 4 tRNAs, and 10,437-bp direct terminal repeats.
Project description:The lytic efficacy of bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine milk was investigated in vitro, regarding possible applications in the therapy of udder inflammation caused by bacterial infections (mastitis). The host range of sequenced, lytic bacteriophages was determined against a collection of 92 Staphylococcus (S.) aureus isolates. The isolates originated from quarter foremilk samples of clinical and subclinical mastitis cases. A spot test and a subsequent plaque assay were used to determine the phage host range. According to their host range, propagation and storage properties, three phages, STA1.ST29, EB1.ST11, and EB1.ST27, were selected for preparing a bacteriophage mixture (1:1:1), which was examined for its lytic activity against S. aureus in pasteurized and raw milk. It was found that almost two thirds of the isolates could be lysed by at least one of the tested phages. The bacteriophage mixture was able to reduce the S. aureus germ density in pasteurized milk and its reduction ability was maintained in raw milk, with only a moderate decrease compared to the results in pasteurized milk. The significant reduction ability of the phage mixture in raw milk promotes further in vivo investigation.
Project description:To determine if significant genomic changes are associated with the development of vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, genomic DNA microarrays were performed to compare the initial vancomycin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA) and a related vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) isolate from five unique patients (five isolate pairs). Keywords: comparative genomic hybridization Overall design: A single 2-channel array was performed for each isolate pair using genomic DNA. Raw data was compiled using IMAGENE. Normalisation and statistical analysis was undertaken using BASE. Statistics were performed using the Wilcoxon signed ranked test.
Project description:Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs.
Project description:Food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) toxins is considered one of the foremost public health threat that usually occurs through the ingestion of raw milk contaminated with staphylococcal enterotoxins. The current study spotlights on the prevalence, antibiogram and genetic diversity of S. aureus enterotoxin genes. One hundred and fifty of raw milk (90) and ice cream (60) samples were randomly collected from local markets from Sadat city, Egypt. S. aureus was recovered from 44% of raw milk and 20% of ice cream samples. The identification for the obtained S. aureus isolates was confirmed through targeting the nuc gene. Antibiogram pattern of 32 S. aureus isolates showed high resistance to Cefoxitin, Sulpha/Trimethoprim, Tetracycline, Norfloxacin, Penicillin and Cephradine. However, high susceptibility to Gentamycin and Vancomycin were observed. Multiplex PCR was a competent practise for the recognition of Staphylococcus enterotoxin (SE) genes (SEA, SEB and SED). The phylogenetic analysis of the SED gene of enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains showed identical similarity with 100% to each other and high similarity with other international isolates in GenBank from different localities and sources. The frequency of enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in milk products could have serious hazardous effects on humans. These results suggested possible strains transmission between different geographical areas through the food and milk product trades.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens in humans and animals, multiply resistant strains are increasingly widespread, new agents are needed for the treatment of S. aureus. Rhein, a natural plant product, has potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We employed Affymetrix Staphylococcus aureus GeneChipsTM arrays to investigate the global transcriptional profiling of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 treated with rhein. Results provided insight into mechanisms involved in rhein - Staphylococcus aureus interactions. Keywords: rhein response Overall design: Staphylococcus aureus cells were exposed for 45 minutes to rhein at concentration of 8 µg/ml (1/2× MIC), 6 samples including 3 control samples are analyzed.
Project description:Young adult fer-15;fem-1 Caenorhabditis elegans were infected with Staphylococcus aureus for 8 h to determine the transcriptional host response to Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of differential gene expression in C. elegans young adults exposed to two different bacteria: E. coli strain OP50 (control), wild-type Staphylococcus aureus RN6390. Samples were analyzed at 8 hours after exposure to the different bacteria. These studies identified C. elegans genes induced by pathogen infection. Keywords: response to pathogen infection, innate immunity, host-pathogen interactions Overall design: There are 6 samples total: 3 biological replicates of Staphylococcus aureus-infected animals, and 3 biological replicates of E. coli-fed controls. Three independent biological replicates were isolated for each treatment. All treatments were performed in parallel.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human and animal pathogen, multiply resistant strains are increasingly widespread, new agents are needed for the treatment of S. aureus. magnolol has potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. We employed Affymetrix Staphylococcus aureus GeneChipsTM arrays to investigate the global transcriptional profiling of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 treated with magnolol. Keywords: gene expression array-based, count Overall design: Staphylococcus aureus cells were exposed for a certain time to magnolol at a certain concentration, 6 samples including 3 control samples are analyzed.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human and animal pathogen, multiply resistant strains are increasingly widespread, new agents are needed for the treatment of S. aureus. eugenol, a natural plant product, has potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. We employed Affymetrix Staphylococcus aureus GeneChipsTM arrays to investigate the global transcriptional profiling of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 treated with eugenol. Keywords: gene expression array-based, count Overall design: Staphylococcus aureus cells were exposed for 45 minutes to eugenol at concentration of 250µg/ml (1/2× MIC), 2 samples including 1 control samples are analyzed.