Project description:Polyporoid Phellinus fungi are ubiquitously present in the environment and play an important role in shaping forest ecology. Several species of Phellinus are notorious pathogens that can affect a broad variety of tree species in forest, plantation, orchard and urban habitats; however, current detection methods are overly complex and lack the sensitivity required to identify these pathogens at the species level in a timely fashion for effective infestation control. Here, we describe eight oligonucleotide microarray platforms for the simultaneous and specific detection of 17 important Phellinus species, using probes generated from the internal transcribed spacer regions unique to each species. The sensitivity, robustness and efficiency of this Phellinus microarray system was subsequently confirmed against template DNA from two key Phellinus species, as well as field samples collected from tree roots, trunks and surrounding soil. This system can provide early, specific and convenient detection of Phellinus species for forestry, arboriculture and quarantine inspection, and could potentially help to mitigate the environmental and economic impact of Phellinus-related diseases.
Project description:Phellinus gilvus (Schwein.) Pat, a species of 'Sanghuang', has been well-documented for various medicinal uses, but the genome information and active constituents are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the whole-genome of P. gilvus, identified phenylpropanoids as its key anti-cancer components, and deduced their biosynthesis pathways. A 41.11-Mb genome sequence was assembled and the heatmap created with high-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques data suggested all bins could be clearly divided into 11 pseudochromosomes. Cellular experiments showed that P. gilvus fruiting body was more effective to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells than mycelia. High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS) analysis revealed P. gilvus fruiting body was rich in phenylpropanoids, and several unique phenylpropanoids in Phellinus spp. exhibited potent anti-carcinogenesis activity. Based on genomic, HR-ESI-MS information and differentially expressed genes in transcriptome analysis, we deduced the biosynthesis pathway of four major phenylpropanoids in P. gilvus. Transcriptome analysis revealed the deduced genes expressions were synergistically changed with the production of phenylpropanoids. The optimal candidate genes of phenylpropanoids' synthesis pathway were screened by molecular docking analysis. Overall, our results provided a high-quality genomic data of P. gilvus and inferred biosynthesis pathways of four phenylpropanoids with potent anti-carcinogenesis activities. These will be a valuable resource for further genetic improvement and effective use of the P. gilvus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of 91 isolates of Phellinus noxius obtained from 46 plant species in Taiwan did not show distinct grouping based on ITS sequences. RESULTS:However, the ITS nucleotides showed 20 different kinds of variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms, deletion and insertion in ITS1 and ITS2, but none in 5.8 S. The Taiwanese isolates of P. noxius were dividable into long (type L), median (type M) and short (type S) groups based on ITS sequence length. Two isolates with identical ITS sequence belonged to types L. Type M with 72 isolates was further divided into 33 subtypes, while types S with 17 isolates was further divided into two subtypes. CONCLUSION:Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences among Phellinus species showed that isolates of P. noxius were in the same clade distinctly separated from other Phellinus species.
Project description:Genus Phellinus taxonomically belongs to Aphyllophorales and some species of this genus have been used as a medicinal ingredients and Indian folk medicines. Especially, P. linteus and morphological-related species are well-known medicinal fungi that have various biological activities such as humoral and cell-mediated, anti-mutagenic, and anti-cancer activities. However, little is known about the rapid detection for complex Phellinus species. Therefore, this study was carried out to develop specific primers for the rapid detection of P. linteus and other related species. Designing the species-specific primers was done based on internal transcribed spacer sequence data. Each primer set detected specifically P. linteus (PL2/PL5R) and P. baumii (PB1/PB4R). These primer sets could be useful for the rapid detection of specific-species among unidentified Phellinus species. Moreover, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the ITS region with HaeIII was also useful for clarifying the relationship between each 5 Phellinus species.
Project description:We describe a case of paravertebral abscess caused by a Phellinus sp. in a boy with chronic granulomatous disease. Sequence-based identification of this mold, a new agent of disease, suggests a close relation to Phellinus umbrinellus.
Project description:Background:Antibiotics are the most commonly used growth-promoting additives in pig feed especially for weaned piglets. But in recent years their use has been restricted because of bacterial resistance. Phellinus, a genus of medicinal fungi, is widely used in Asia to treat gastroenteric dysfunction, hemrrhage, and tumors. Phellinus is reported to improve body weight on mice with colitis. Therefore, we hypothesize that it could benefit the health and growth of piglets, and could be used as an alternative to antibiotic. Here, the effect of Phellinus gilvus mycelia (SH) and antibiotic growth promoter (ATB) were investigated on weaned piglets. Methods:A total of 72 crossbred piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups (n = 4 pens per treatment group with six piglets per pen). The control group was fed basal diet; the SH treatment group was fed basal diet containing 5 g/kg SH; the ATB treatment group was feed basal diet containing 75 mg/kg aureomycin and 20 mg/kg kitasamycin. The experiment period was 28 days. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed intake to gain ratio were calculated. The concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in serum were assessed. Viable plate counts of Escherichia coli in feces were measured. Fecal microbiota was analyzed via the 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Results:The ADG (1-28 day) of piglets was significantly higher in SH and ATB treatment groups (P < 0.05) compared to the control, and the ADG did not show significant difference between SH and ATB treatment groups (P > 0.05). Both SH and ATB treatments increased the MPO, IL-1?, and TNF-? levels in serum compared to the control (P < 0.05), but the levels in SH group were all significantly higher than in the ATB group (P < 0.05). Fecal microbiological analysis showed that viable E. coli counts were dramatically decreased by SH and ATB. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that ATB shifted the microbiota structure drastically, and significantly increased the relative abundance of Prevotella, Megasphaera, and Faecalibacterium genera. But SH slightly influenced the microbiota structure, and only increased the relative abundance of Alloprevotella genus. Conclusion:Our work demonstrated that though SH slightly influenced the microbiota structure, it markedly reduced the fecal E. coli population, and improved growth and innate immunity in piglets. Our finding suggested that SH could be an alternative to ATB in piglet feed.
Project description:<h4>Abstract</h4>Seven new drimane-type sesquiterpennoids, phellinuins A-G (1-7), together with one known compound 3β,11,12-trihydroxydrimene (8) were isolated from the cultures of mushroom Phellinus tuberculosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data and by comparison with data reported in the literature.