Project description:The pre-conditioning of adult marine invertebrates to altered conditions, such as low pH, can significantly impact offspring outcomes, a process which is often referred to as transgenerational plasticity (TGP). This study describes for the first time, the gene expression profiles associated with TGP in the green sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris and evaluates the transcriptional contribution to larval resilience. RNA-Seq was used to determine how the expression profiles of larvae spawned into low pH from pre-acclimated adults differed to those of larvae produced from adults cultured under ambient pH. The main findings demonstrated that adult conditioning to low pH critically pre-loads the embryonic transcriptional pool with antioxidants to prepare the larvae for the "new" conditions. In addition, the classic cellular stress response, measured via the production of heat shock proteins (the heat shock response (HSR)), was separately evaluated. None of the early stage larvae either spawned in low pH (produced from both ambient and pre-acclimated adults) or subjected to a separate heat shock experiment were able to activate the full HSR as measured in adults, but the capacity to mount an HSR increased as development proceeded. This compromised ability clearly contributes to the vulnerability of early stage larvae to acute environmental challenge.
Project description:Cone snails produce a fast-acting and often paralyzing venom, largely dominated by disulfide-rich conotoxins targeting ion channels. Although disulfide-poor conopeptides are usually minor components of cone snail venoms, their ability to target key membrane receptors such as GPCRs make them highly valuable as drug lead compounds. From the venom gland transcriptome of Conus miliaris, we report here on the discovery and characterization of two conopressins, which are nonapeptide ligands of the vasopressin/oxytocin receptor family. These novel sequence variants show unusual features, including a charge inversion at the critical position 8, with an aspartate instead of a highly conserved lysine or arginine residue. Both the amidated and acid C-terminal analogues were synthesized, followed by pharmacological characterization on human and zebrafish receptors and structural investigation by NMR. Whereas conopressin-M1 showed weak and only partial agonist activity at hV1bR (amidated form only) and ZFV1a1R (both amidated and acid form), both conopressin-M2 analogues acted as full agonists at the ZFV2 receptor with low micromolar affinity. Together with the NMR structures of amidated conopressins-M1, -M2 and -G, this study provides novel structure-activity relationship information that may help in the design of more selective ligands.
Project description:Electrophilic fatty acid derivatives, including nitrolinoleic acid and nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO(2)), can mediate anti-inflammatory and pro-survival signaling reactions. The transcription factor Nrf2, activated by electrophilic fatty acids, suppresses redox-sensitive pro-inflammatory gene expression and protects against vascular endothelial oxidative injury. It was therefore postulated that activation of Nrf2 by OA-NO(2) accounts in part for its anti-inflammatory actions, motivating the characterization of Nrf2-dependent and -independent effects of OA-NO(2) on gene expression using genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Control and Nrf2-small interfering RNA-transfected human endothelial cells were treated with vehicle, oleic acid, or OA-NO(2), and differential gene expression profiles were determined. Although OA-NO(2) significantly induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, including heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, the majority of OA-NO(2)-regulated genes were regulated by Nrf2-independent pathways. Moreover, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the heat shock response is the major pathway activated by OA-NO(2), with robust induction of a number of heat shock genes regulated by the heat shock transcription factor. Inasmuch as the heat shock response mediates anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions, this mechanism is proposed to contribute to the protective cell signaling functions of nitro-fatty acids and other electrophilic fatty acid derivatives.
Project description:Most argasid ticks from the Neotropical region are parasites of mammals and birds, with a few records from reptiles. Many species of the genus Ornithodoros are known only through larval descriptions, and their chaetotaxy and morphological characteristics have been used to separate the taxa. In the present study, we describe the larva and the nymph of first instar of a new species of the genus Ornithodoros that was collected from frogs of the species Thoropa miliaris.Larvae of Ornithodoros were collected from frogs of the species T. miliaris at waterfalls in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The larval and nymphal description was based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular analysis using the argasid 16S rRNA sequences available in GenBank was also conducted.Ornithodoros faccinii sp. n. is closely related to Ornithodoros clarki Jones & Clifford, Ornithodoros marinkellei Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and Ornithodoros sawaii Kitaoka & Susuki. However, the larval morphology of the new species is unique. The mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequence of O. faccinii generated in the present study was deposited in GenBank under the number KP861242.The larvae collected from Thoropa miliaris are a new species, Ornithodoros faccinii n. sp. This is the first report of argasid ticks on frogs in Brazil, the second on frogs and the third on Amphibia in the Neotropical region.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Both large deletions in genome and heat shock stress would lead to alterations in the gene expression profile; however, whether there is any potential linkage between these disturbances to the transcriptome have not been discovered. Here, the relationship between the genomic and environmental contributions to the transcriptome was analyzed by comparing the transcriptomes of the bacterium Escherichia coli (strain MG1655 and its extensive genomic deletion derivative, MDS42) grown in regular and transient heat shock conditions. RESULTS: The transcriptome analysis showed the following: (i) there was a reorganization of the transcriptome in accordance with preferred chromosomal periodicity upon genomic or heat shock perturbation; (ii) there was a considerable overlap between the perturbed regulatory networks and the categories enriched for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following genome reduction and heat shock; (iii) the genes sensitive to genome reduction tended to be located close to genomic scars, and some were also highly responsive to heat shock; and (iv) the genomic and environmental contributions to the transcriptome displayed not only a positive correlation but also a negatively compensated relationship (i.e., antagonistic epistasis). CONCLUSION: The contributions of genome reduction and heat shock to the Escherichia coli transcriptome were evaluated at multiple levels. The observations of overlapping perturbed networks, directional similarity in transcriptional changes, positive correlation and epistatic nature linked the two contributions and suggest somehow a crosstalk guiding transcriptional reorganization in response to both genetic and environmental disturbances in bacterium E. coli.
Project description:Innate immunity is the first line of defence against pathogens and is essential for survival of the infected host. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an emerging model to study viral pathogenesis, yet antiviral defence responses remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the heat shock response, a cellular mechanism that prevents proteotoxicity, as a component of the antiviral immune response in Drosophila. Transcriptome analyses of Drosophila S2 cells and adult flies revealed strong induction of the heat shock response upon RNA virus infection. Dynamic induction patterns of heat shock pathway components were characterized in vitro and in vivo following infection with different classes of viruses. The heat shock transcription factor (Hsf), as well as active viral replication, were necessary for the induction of the response. Hsf-deficient adult flies were hypersensitive to virus infection, indicating a role of the heat shock response in antiviral defence. In accordance, transgenic activation of the heat shock response prolonged survival time after infection and enabled long-term control of virus replication to undetectable levels. Together, our results establish the heat shock response as an important constituent of innate antiviral immunity in Drosophila.
Project description:Seed priming is widely used in commercial seeds and its main function is to accelerate and synchronize seed germination. Undesirably, primed seeds show reduced longevity and treatments like heat shock have been shown to improve longevity in primed seeds. Nonetheless, the effect of heat shock treatment on primed seeds at the mRNA level is not known. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of heat shock treatment on the longevity of primed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds at the physiological and transcriptome levels. Tomato seeds were primed and dried (control). Alternatively, primed seeds were subjected to heat shock treatment (38 °C/32 % relative humidity) before drying. Germination, vigor and longevity were evaluated. Transcriptome analysis was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from biological samples collected immediately after priming and another samples collected from primed seeds followed by the heat shock treatments. The gene expression was validated by quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). We showed that applying heat shock treatment after priming increased germination speed, enhanced seed longevity and preserved the vigor during storage of primed tomato seeds. Through transcriptome analysis, 368 differentially expressed genes were identified, from which 298 genes were up-regulated and 70 were down-regulated. We showed the increase of mRNA levels of HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-like and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN-like chaperone genes, suggesting the involvement of the proteins coded by these transcripts in the enhancement of longevity in primed tomato seeds. The heat shock treatment after priming enhances and preserves the vigor of tomato primed seeds during storage. In addition, improves seed longevity through the increase in the expression of transcripts related to protection by response to stress.