Project description:An endophytic bacterium, Burkholderia cenocepacia 869T2, isolated from vetiver grass, has shown its abilities for both in planta biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Its draft genome sequence was determined to provide insights into those metabolic pathways involved in plant-beneficial activity. This is the first genome report for endophytic B. cenocepacia.
Project description:Individual normalized intensity of Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia seminalis hybridized in a B. cenocepacia array Overall design: A collection of 199 Burkholderia isolates were hybridized against an array targeting five B. cenocepacia strains in order to understand the gene distribution within this species. Burkholderia cenocepacia (n=191) as well as Burkholderia seminalis (n=8, as controls) were used in this analysis.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia is a clinically dominant form among the other virulent species of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of seven nosocomial Bcc isolates, five of which were isolated from the bloodstream infections and two isolates were recovered from the hospital setting during the surveillance. Genome-based species identification of the Bcc isolates using a type strain explicitly identified the species as B. cenocepacia. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed that the six isolates were clonal and phylogenetically distinct from the other B. cenocepacia. Comparative genomics distinctly revealed the larger genome size of six clonal isolates as well as the presence of a novel 107 kb genomic island named as BcenGI15, which encodes putative pathogenicity-associated genes. We have shown that the BcenGI15 has an ability to actively excise from the genome and forming an extrachromosomal circular form suggesting its mobile nature. Surprisingly, a homolog of BcenGI15 was also present in the genome of a clinical isolate named Burkholderia pseudomallei strain EY1. This novel genetic element is present only in the variants of B. cenocepacia and B. pseudomallei isolates suggesting its interspecies existence in the main pathogenic species of the genus Burkholderia. In conclusion, the whole genome analysis of the genomically distinct B. cenocepacia clinical isolates has advanced our understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important nosocomial pathogen as well as its relatives.
Project description:Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are associated with significant decline of lung functions in cystic fibrosis patients. Bcc infections are virtually impossible to eradicate due to their irresponsiveness to antibiotics. The 2-thiocyanatopyridine derivative 11026103 is a novel, synthetic compound active against Burkholderia cenocepacia. To characterize mechanisms of resistance to 11026103, B. cenocepacia was subjected to chemical mutagenesis, followed by whole genome sequencing. Parallel mutations in resistant isolates were localized in a regulatory protein of the efflux system Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND)-9 (BCAM1948), RNA polymerase sigma factor (BCAL2462) and its cognate putative anti-sigma factor (BCAL2461). Transcriptomic analysis identified positive regulation of a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) efflux system BCAL1510-1512 by BCAL2462. Artificial overexpression of both efflux systems increased resistance to the compound. The effect of 11026103 on B. cenocepacia was analyzed by RNA-Seq and a competitive fitness assay utilizing an essential gene knockdown mutant library. 11026103 exerted a pleiotropic effect on transcription including profound downregulation of cluster of orthologous groups (COG) category "Translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis". The competitive fitness assay identified many genes which modulated susceptibility to 11026103. In summary, 11026103 exerts a pleiotropic cellular response in B. cenocepacia which can be prevented by efflux system-mediated export.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2, an opportunistic bacterium for people with cystic fibrosis (CF), belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and is consistently used as a model pathogen. We describe here the closed genome sequence for this strain, which will help advance research in B. cenocepacia biology and omics studies.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that have large and dynamic genomes. In this work, we identified the essential genome of B. cenocepacia K56-2 using high-density transposon mutagenesis and insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq circle). We constructed a library of one million transposon mutants and identified the transposon insertions at an average of one insertion per 27?bp. The probability of gene essentiality was determined by comparing of the insertion density per gene with the variance of neutral datasets generated by Monte Carlo simulations. Five hundred and eight genes were not significantly disrupted, suggesting that these genes are essential for survival in rich, undefined medium. Comparison of the B. cenocepacia K56-2 essential genome with that of the closely related B. cenocepacia J2315 revealed partial overlapping, suggesting that some essential genes are strain-specific. Furthermore, 158 essential genes were conserved in B. cenocepacia and two species belonging to the Burkholderia pseudomallei complex, B. pseudomallei K96243 and Burkholderia thailandensis E264. Porins, including OpcC, a lysophospholipid transporter, LplT, and a protein involved in the modification of lipid A with aminoarabinose were found to be essential in Burkholderia genomes but not in other bacterial essential genomes identified so far. Our results highlight the existence of cell envelope processes that are uniquely essential in species of the genus Burkholderia for which the essential genomes have been identified by Tn-seq.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that infects individuals with cystic fibrosis, chronic granulomatous disease, and other immunocompromised states. B. cenocepacia survives in macrophages in membrane-bound vacuoles; however, the mechanism by which B. cenocepacia gains entry into macrophages remains unknown. After macrophage internalization, survival of B. cenocepacia within a bacteria-containing membrane vacuole (BcCV) is associated with its ability to arrest the maturation of the BcCV. In this study, we show that B. cenocepacia induces localized membrane ruffling, macropinocytosis, and macropinosomes-like compartments upon contact with the macrophage. The Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) of B. cenocepacia contributes to macrophage entry and macropinosome-like compartment formation. These data demonstrate the ability of Burkholderia to enter macrophages through the induction of macropinocytosis.
Project description:The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) consists of 20 closely related Gram-negative bacterial species that are significant pathogens for persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some Bcc strains are highly transmissible and resistant to multiple antibiotics, making infection difficult to treat. A tailocin (phage tail-like bacteriocin), designated BceTMilo, with a broad host range against members of the Bcc, was identified in B. cenocepacia strain BC0425. Sixty-eight percent of Bcc representing 10 species and 90% of non-Bcc Burkholderia strains tested were sensitive to BceTMilo. BceTMilo also showed killing activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and derivatives. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the major BceTMilo proteins was used to identify a 23-kb tailocin locus in a draft BC0425 genome. The BceTMilo locus was syntenic and highly similar to a 24.6-kb region on chromosome 1 of B. cenocepacia J2315 (BCAL0081 to BCAL0107). A close relationship and synteny were observed between BceTMilo and Burkholderia phage KL3 and, by extension, with paradigm temperate myophage P2. Deletion mutants in the gene cluster encoding enzymes for biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the indicator strain B. cenocepacia K56-2 conferred resistance to BceTMilo. Analysis of the defined mutants in LPS biosynthetic genes indicated that an ?-d-glucose residue in the core oligosaccharide is the receptor for BceTMilo.IMPORTANCE BceTMilo, presented in this study, is a broad-host-range tailocin active against Burkholderia spp. As such, BceTMilo and related or modified tailocins have potential as bactericidal therapeutic agents against plant- and human-pathogenic Burkholderia.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia is the most prevalent and feared member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex in lung infections of cystic fibrosis (CF). Genotyping and monitoring of long-term colonization are critical at clinical units; however, the differentiation of specific lineages performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is still limited to a small number of isolates due to the high cost and time-consuming procedure. The aim of this study was to optimize a protocol (the SNaPBcen assay) for extensive bacterial population studies. The strategy used for the SNaPBcen assay is based on targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in MLST genes instead of sequencing full MLST sequences. Nonpolymorphic and redundant MLST positions were eliminated, and a set of 24 polymorphisms included in the SNaPBcen assay ensures a high-resolution genomic characterization. These polymorphisms were identified based on the comparative analysis of 137 B. cenocepacia MLST profiles available online (http://pubmlst.org/bcc/). The group of 81 clinical isolates of B. cenocepacia examined in this study using the SNaPBcen assay revealed 51 distinct profiles, and a final discriminatory power of 0.9997 compared with MLST was determined. The SNaPBcen assay was able to reveal isolates with microvariations and the presence of multiple clonal variants in patients chronically colonized with B. cenocepacia. Main phylogenetic subgroups IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC of B. cenocepacia could be separated by the Gl94R polymorphism included in the panel. The SNaPBcen assay proved to be a rapid and robust alternative to the standard MLST for B. cenocepacia, allowing the simultaneous analysis of multiple polymorphisms following amplification and mini-sequencing reactions.
Project description:As is true for many other antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) are currently being assessed for their susceptibility to phage therapy as an antimicrobial treatment. The objective of this study was to perform genomic and limited functional characterization of the novel BCC phage JG068 (vB_BceP_JG068).JG068 is a podovirus that forms large, clear plaques on Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2. Host range analysis indicates that this phage can infect environmental, clinical, and epidemic isolates of Burkholderia multivorans, B. cenocepacia, Burkholderia stabilis, and Burkholderia dolosa, likely through interaction with the host lipopolysaccharide as a receptor. The JG068 chromosome is 41,604 base pairs (bp) in length and is flanked by 216 bp short direct terminal repeats. Gene expression originates from both host and phage promoters and is in the forward direction for all 49 open reading frames. The genome sequence shows similarity to Ralstonia phage ?RSB1, Caulobacter phage Cd1, and uncharacterized genetic loci of blood disease bacterium R229 and Burkholderia pseudomallei 1710b. CoreGenesUniqueGenes analysis indicates that JG068 belongs to the Autographivirinae subfamily and ?KMV-like phages genus. Modules within the genome encode proteins involved in DNA-binding, morphogenesis, and lysis, but none associated with pathogenicity or lysogeny. Similar to the signal-arrest-release (SAR) endolysin of ?KMV, inducible expression of the JG068 SAR endolysin causes lysis of Escherichia coli that is dependent on the presence of an N-terminal signal sequence. In an in vivo assay using the Galleria mellonella infection model, treatment of B. cenocepacia K56-2-infected larvae with JG068 results in a significant increase in larval survival.As JG068 has a broad host range, does not encode virulence factors, is obligately lytic, and has activity against an epidemic B. cenocepacia strain in vivo, this phage is a highly promising candidate for BCC phage therapy development.