Project description:We report a detailed characterization of the HPV16 genome in two brain metastases from OPSCC tumors. The use of a target enrichment strategy followed by next generation sequencing (NGS) provided an effective way to identify viral infection in tumor genome, including internal deletions and insertion sites into the host genome. Applying similar strategies to a larger cohort of HPV+ HNSCC brain metastases could help to identify biomarkers that can predict metastasis and/or identify novel therapeutic options.
Project description:Retroviral integration is mediated by a unique enzymatic process shared by all retroviruses and retrotransposons. During integration, double-stranded linear viral DNA is inserted into the host genome in a process catalyzed by viral-encoded integrase. However, host cell defenses against HIV-1 integration are not clear. This study identifies -catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1) as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 integration via association with viral IN and its cofactor, lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75. CTNNBL1 overexpression blocks HIV-1 integration and inhibits viral replication, whereas CTNNBL1 depletion significantly upregulates HIV-1 integration into the genome of various target cells. Further, CTNNBL1 expression is downregulated in CD4+ T cells by activation, and CTNNBL1 depletion also facilitates HIV-1 integration in resting CD4+ T cells. Thus, host cells may employ CTNNBL1 to inhibit HIV-1 integration into the genome. This finding suggests a strategy for the treatment of HIV infections.
Project description:ϕXacN1 is a novel jumbo myovirus infecting the causative agent of Asian citrus canker, Xanthomonas citri. Its linear 384,670 bp double-stranded DNA genome encodes 592 predicted protein coding genes and shows 65,875 bp direct terminal repeats (DTRs), so far the longest DTRs among sequence phage genomes. The DTRs harbor 56 tRNA genes, corresponding to all 20 amino acids. This is the highest number of tRNA genes reported in a phage genome. Codon usage analyses revealed a propensity that the phage encoded tRNAs target codons that are highly used by the phage but less frequently by its host. The existence of these tRNA genes, additional seven translation-related genes as well as a chaperonin gene found in the ϕXacN1 genome suggests an increased level of independence of phage replication on host molecular machinery and a wide host range. Consistently, ϕXacN1 showed a wider host range than other X. citri phages in an infection test against a panel of X. citri strains. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a clade of phages composed of ϕXacN1 and ten other jumbo phages showing an evolutionary stability in their large genome sizes.
Project description:Genome-wide mapping of gene-microbiome interaction: implication in behavior and effect on microbiome and metabolome. Data was generated on a Thermo Q Exactive and C18 RP UHPLC. Positive polarity acquisition on LC-MS/MS.