Project description:The phylum Verrucomicrobia contains freshwater representatives which remain poorly studied at the genomic, taxonomic, and ecological levels. In this work we present eighteen new reconstructed verrucomicrobial genomes from two freshwater reservoirs located close to each other (Tous and Amadorio, Spain). These metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) display a remarkable taxonomic diversity inside the phylum and comprise wide ranges of estimated genome sizes (from 1.8 to 6 Mb). Among all Verrucomicrobia studied we found some of the smallest genomes of the Spartobacteria and Opitutae classes described so far. Some of the Opitutae family MAGs were small, cosmopolitan, with a general heterotrophic metabolism with preference for carbohydrates, and capable of xylan, chitin, or cellulose degradation. Besides, we assembled large copiotroph genomes, which contain a higher number of transporters, polysaccharide degrading pathways and in general more strategies for the uptake of nutrients and carbohydrate-based metabolic pathways in comparison with the representatives with the smaller genomes. The diverse genomes revealed interesting features like green-light absorbing rhodopsins and a complete set of genes involved in nitrogen fixation. The large diversity in genome sizes and physiological properties emphasize the diversity of this clade in freshwaters enlarging even further the already broad eco-physiological range of these microbes.
Project description:A high number of viral metagenomes have revealed countless genomes of putative bacteriophages that have not yet been identified due to limitations in bacteriophage cultures. However, most virome studies have been focused on marine or gut environments, thereby leaving the viral community structure of freshwater lakes unclear. Because the lakes located around the globe have independent ecosystems with unique characteristics, viral community structures are also distinctive but comparable. Here, we present data on viral metagenomes that were seasonally collected at a depth of 1?m from Lake Soyang, the largest freshwater reservoir in South Korea. Through shotgun metagenome sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform, 3.08 to 5.54-Gbps of reads per virome were obtained. To predict the viral genome sequences within Lake Soyang, contigs were constructed and 648 to 1,004 putative viral contigs were obtained per sample. We expect that both viral metagenome reads and viral contigs would contribute in comparing and understanding of viral communities among different freshwater lakes depending on seasonal changes.
Project description:The Cape Verde islands are part of the African Sahelian arid belt that possesses an erratic rain pattern prompting the need for water reservoirs, which are now critical for the country’s sustainability. Worldwide, freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in frequency due to global climate change and the eutrophication of water bodies, particularly in reservoirs. To date, there have been no risk assessments of cyanobacterial toxin production in these man-made structures. We evaluated this potential risk using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and full metagenome sequencing in freshwater reservoirs of Cape Verde. Our analysis revealed the presence of several potentially toxic cyanobacterial genera in all sampled reservoirs. Faveta potentially toxic and bloom-forming Microcystis sp., dominated our samples, while a Cryptomonas green algae and Gammaproteobacteria dominated Saquinho and Poilão reservoirs. We reconstructed and assembled the Microcystis genome, extracted from the metagenome of bulk DNA from Faveta water. Phylogenetic analysis of Microcystis cf. aeruginosa CV01’s genome revealed its close relationship with other Microcystis genomes, as well as clustering with other continental African strains, suggesting geographical coherency. In addition, it revealed several clusters of known toxin-producing genes. This survey reinforces the need to better understand the country’s microbial ecology as a whole of water reservoirs on the rise.
Project description:Microbes are critical in carbon and nutrient cycling in freshwater ecosystems. Members of the Verrucomicrobia are ubiquitous in such systems, and yet their roles and ecophysiology are not well understood. In this study, we recovered 19 Verrucomicrobia draft genomes by sequencing 184 time-series metagenomes from a eutrophic lake and a humic bog that differ in carbon source and nutrient availabilities. These genomes span four of the seven previously defined Verrucomicrobia subdivisions and greatly expand knowledge of the genomic diversity of freshwater Verrucomicrobia. Genome analysis revealed their potential role as (poly)saccharide degraders in freshwater, uncovered interesting genomic features for this lifestyle, and suggested their adaptation to nutrient availabilities in their environments. Verrucomicrobia populations differ significantly between the two lakes in glycoside hydrolase gene abundance and functional profiles, reflecting the autochthonous and terrestrially derived allochthonous carbon sources of the two ecosystems, respectively. Interestingly, a number of genomes recovered from the bog contained gene clusters that potentially encode a novel porin-multiheme cytochrome c complex and might be involved in extracellular electron transfer in the anoxic humus-rich environment. Notably, most epilimnion genomes have large numbers of so-called "Planctomycete-specific" cytochrome c-encoding genes, which exhibited distribution patterns nearly opposite to those seen with glycoside hydrolase genes, probably associated with the different levels of environmental oxygen availability and carbohydrate complexity between lakes/layers. Overall, the recovered genomes represent a major step toward understanding the role, ecophysiology, and distribution of Verrucomicrobia in freshwater. IMPORTANCE Freshwater Verrucomicrobia spp. are cosmopolitan in lakes and rivers, and yet their roles and ecophysiology are not well understood, as cultured freshwater Verrucomicrobia spp. are restricted to one subdivision of this phylum. Here, we greatly expanded the known genomic diversity of this freshwater lineage by recovering 19 Verrucomicrobia draft genomes from 184 metagenomes collected from a eutrophic lake and a humic bog across multiple years. Most of these genomes represent the first freshwater representatives of several Verrucomicrobia subdivisions. Genomic analysis revealed Verrucomicrobia to be potential (poly)saccharide degraders and suggested their adaptation to carbon sources of different origins in the two contrasting ecosystems. We identified putative extracellular electron transfer genes and so-called "Planctomycete-specific" cytochrome c-encoding genes and identified their distinct distribution patterns between the lakes/layers. Overall, our analysis greatly advances the understanding of the function, ecophysiology, and distribution of freshwater Verrucomicrobia, while highlighting their potential role in freshwater carbon cycling.
Project description:Ever-increasing affordability of next-generation sequencing makes whole-metagenome sequencing an attractive alternative to traditional 16S rDNA, RFLP, or culturing approaches for the analysis of microbiome samples. The advantage of whole-metagenome sequencing is that it allows direct inference of the metabolic capacity and physiological features of the studied metagenome without reliance on the knowledge of genotypes and phenotypes of the members of the bacterial community. It also makes it possible to overcome problems of 16S rDNA sequencing, such as unknown copy number of the 16S gene and lack of sufficient sequence similarity of the "universal" 16S primers to some of the target 16S genes. On the other hand, next-generation sequencing suffers from biases resulting in non-uniform coverage of the sequenced genomes. To overcome this difficulty, we present a model of GC-bias in sequencing metagenomic samples as well as filtration and normalization techniques necessary for accurate quantification of microbial organisms. While there has been substantial research in normalization and filtration of read-count data in such techniques as RNA-seq or Chip-seq, to our knowledge, this has not been the case for the field of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing. The presented methods assume that complete genome references are available for most microorganisms of interest present in metagenomic samples. This is often a valid assumption in such fields as medical diagnostics of patient microbiota. Testing the model on two validation datasets showed four-fold reduction in root-mean-square error compared to non-normalized data in both cases. The presented methods can be applied to any pipeline for whole metagenome sequencing analysis relying on complete microbial genome references. We demonstrate that such pre-processing reduces the number of false positive hits and increases accuracy of abundance estimates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The adaptation of a marine prokaryote to live in freshwater environments or vice versa is generally believed to be an unusual and evolutionary demanding process. However, the reasons are not obvious given the similarity of both kinds of habitats. RESULTS:We have found major differences at the level of the predicted metaproteomes of marine and freshwater habitats with more acidic values of the isoelectric points (pI) in marine microbes. Furthermore, by comparing genomes of marine-freshwater phylogenetic relatives, we have found higher pI values (basic shift) in the freshwater ones. This difference was sharper in secreted > cytoplasmic > membrane proteins. The changes are concentrated on the surface of soluble proteins. It is also detectable at the level of total amino acid composition and involves similarly core and flexible genome- encoded proteins. CONCLUSIONS:The marked changes at the level of protein amino acid composition and pI provide a tool to predict the preferred habitat of a culture or a metagenome-assembled genome (MAG). The exact physiological explanation for such variations in the pIs and electrostatic surface potentials is not known yet. However, these changes might reflect differences in membrane bioenergetics derived from the absence of significant Na+ concentrations in most freshwater habitats. In any case, the changes in amino acid composition in most proteins imply that a long evolutionary time is required to adapt from one type of habitat to the other.
Project description:Most current approaches to analyse metagenomic data rely on reference genomes. Novel microbial communities extend far beyond the coverage of reference databases and de novo metagenome assembly from complex microbial communities remains a great challenge. Here we present a novel experimental and bioinformatic framework, metaSort, for effective construction of bacterial genomes from metagenomic samples. MetaSort provides a sorted mini-metagenome approach based on flow cytometry and single-cell sequencing methodologies, and employs new computational algorithms to efficiently recover high-quality genomes from the sorted mini-metagenome by the complementary of the original metagenome. Through extensive evaluations, we demonstrated that metaSort has an excellent and unbiased performance on genome recovery and assembly. Furthermore, we applied metaSort to an unexplored microflora colonized on the surface of marine kelp and successfully recovered 75 high-quality genomes at one time. This approach will greatly improve access to microbial genomes from complex or novel communities.
Project description:Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in marine water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost exclusively to the 'Candidatus Scalindua' species, but the molecular basis of their metabolism and competitive fitness is presently unknown. We applied community sequencing of a marine anammox enrichment culture dominated by 'Candidatus Scalindua profunda' to construct a genome assembly, which was subsequently used to analyse the most abundant gene transcripts and proteins. In the S. profunda assembly, 4756 genes were annotated, and only about half of them showed the highest identity to the only other anammox bacterium of which a metagenome assembly had been constructed so far, the freshwater 'Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis'. In total, 2016 genes of S. profunda could not be matched to the K. stuttgartiensis metagenome assembly at all, and a similar number of genes in K.stuttgartiensis could not be found in S. profunda. Most of these genes did not have a known function but 98 expressed genes could be attributed to oligopeptide transport, amino acid metabolism, use of organic acids and electron transport. On the basis of the S. profunda metagenome, and environmental metagenome data, we observed pronounced differences in the gene organization and expression of important anammox enzymes, such as hydrazine synthase (HzsAB), nitrite reductase (NirS) and inorganic nitrogen transport proteins. Adaptations of Scalindua to the substrate limitation of the ocean may include highly expressed ammonium, nitrite and oligopeptide transport systems and pathways for the transport, oxidation, and assimilation of small organic compounds that may allow a more versatile lifestyle contributing to the competitive fitness of Scalindua in the marine realm.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The human microbiota are complex systems with important roles in our physiological activities and diseases. Sequencing the microbial genomes in the microbiota can help in our interpretation of their activities. The vast majority of the microbes in the microbiota cannot be isolated for individual sequencing. Current metagenomics practices use short-read sequencing to simultaneously sequence a mixture of microbial genomes. However, these results are in ambiguity during genome assembly, leading to unsatisfactory microbial genome completeness and contig continuity. Linked-read sequencing is able to remove some of these ambiguities by attaching the same barcode to the reads from a long DNA fragment (10-100?kb), thus improving metagenome assembly. However, it is not clear how the choices for several parameters in the use of linked-read sequencing affect the assembly quality.<h4>Results</h4>We first examined the effects of read depth (C) on metagenome assembly from linked-reads in simulated data and a mock community. The results showed that C positively correlated with the length of assembled sequences but had little effect on their qualities. The latter observation was corroborated by tests using real data from the human gut microbiome, where C demonstrated minor impact on the sequence quality as well as on the proportion of bins annotated as draft genomes. On the other hand, metagenome assembly quality was susceptible to read depth per fragment (C<sub>R</sub>) and DNA fragment physical depth (C<sub>F</sub>). For the same C, deeper C<sub>R</sub> resulted in more draft genomes while deeper C<sub>F</sub> improved the quality of the draft genomes. We also found that average fragment length (?<sub>FL</sub>) had marginal effect on assemblies, while fragments per partition (N<sub>F/P</sub>) impacted the off-target reads involved in local assembly, namely, lower N<sub>F/P</sub> values would lead to better assemblies by reducing the ambiguities of the off-target reads. In general, the use of linked-reads improved the assembly for contig N50 when compared to Illumina short-reads, but not when compared to PacBio CCS (circular consensus sequencing) long-reads.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We investigated the influence of linked-read sequencing parameters on metagenome assembly comprehensively. While the quality of genome assembly from linked-reads cannot rival that from PacBio CCS long-reads, the case for using linked-read sequencing remains persuasive due to its low cost and high base-quality. Our study revealed that the probable best practice in using linked-reads for metagenome assembly was to merge the linked-reads from multiple libraries, where each had sufficient C<sub>R</sub> but a smaller amount of input DNA. Video Abstract.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The causality and pathogenic mechanism of microbiome composition remain elusive in many diseases, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to elucidate gut microbiome's role in RA pathology by a comprehensive metagenome-wide association study (MWAS). METHODS:We conducted MWAS of the RA gut microbiome in the Japanese population (n case=82, n control=42) by using whole-genome shotgun sequencing of high depth (average 13?Gb per sample). Our MWAS consisted of three major bioinformatic analytic pipelines (phylogenetic analysis, functional gene analysis and pathway analysis). RESULTS:Phylogenetic case-control association tests showed high abundance of multiple species belonging to the genus Prevotella (e.g., Prevotella denticola) in the RA case metagenome. The non-linear machine learning method efficiently deconvoluted the case-control phylogenetic discrepancy. Gene functional assessments showed that the abundance of one redox reaction-related gene (R6FCZ7) was significantly decreased in the RA metagenome compared with controls. A variety of biological pathways including those related to metabolism (e.g., fatty acid biosynthesis and glycosaminoglycan degradation) were enriched in the case-control comparison. A population-specific link between the metagenome and host genome was identified by comparing biological pathway enrichment between the RA metagenome and the RA genome-wide association study results. No apparent discrepancy in alpha or beta diversities of metagenome was found between RA cases and controls. CONCLUSION:Our shotgun sequencing-based MWAS highlights a novel link among the gut microbiome, host genome and pathology of RA, which contributes to our understanding of the microbiome's role in RA aetiology.