Project description:In order to determine whether ONECUT2 directly regulates the AR transcriptional program, or whether the effect of ONECUT2 is a mere consequence of AR downregulation, we performed ONECUT2 ChIP-sequencing (ChIP-seq) using the 22Rv1 human castration resistant prostate cancer cell line, which expresses high levels of ONECUT2 in comparison to other human prostate cancer cell lines Overall design: Genome-wide binding profile of ONECUT2 transcription factor in 22Rv1 cell.
Project description:Treatment of prostate cancer by hormone suppression leads to the appearance of aggressive variants with variable or no dependence on the androgen receptor. Here we show that the developmental transcription factor, ONECUT2, is a master regulator of the AR network that is highly active in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Overall design: We performed gene expression profiling in 22Rv1 and LNCaP cell lines. OC2 was overexpressed in LNCaP and 22Rv1 or silenced in 22Rv1.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the most common on sexually transmitted viruses in the world. HPVs are responsible for a large spectrum of deseases, both benign and malignant. The certain types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cancer. In attemps to find additional drugs in the treatment of cervical cancer, inhibitors of the histone deacetylases (HDAC) have received much attention due to their low cytotoxic profiles and the E6/E7 oncogene function of human papilomavirus can be completely by passed by HDAC inhibition. The histone deacetylase inhibitors can induce growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of cancer cells. HDAC class I and class II are considered the main targets for cancer. Therefore, the six HDACs class II was modeled and about two inhibitors (SAHA and TSA) were docked using AutoDock4.2, to each of the inhibitor in order to identify the pharmacological properties. Based on the results of docking, SAHA and TSA were able to bind with zinc ion in HDACs models as a drug target. SAHA was satisfied almost all the properties i.e., binding affinity, the Drug-Likeness value and Drug Score with 70% oral bioavailability and the carbonyl group of these compound fits well into the active site of the target where the zinc is present. Hence, SAHA could be developed as potential inhibitors of class II HDACs and valuable cervical cancer drug candidate.
Project description:The transient receptor potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) ion channel is modulated by myriad noxious stimuli that interact with multiple regions of the channel, including cysteine-reactive natural extracts from onion and garlic which modify residues in the cytoplasmic domains. The way in which TRPA1 cytoplasmic domain modification is coupled to opening of the ion-conducting pore has yet to be elucidated. The cryo-EM structure of TRPA1 revealed a tetrameric C-terminal coiled-coil surrounded by N-terminal ankyrin repeat domains (ARDs), an architecture shared with the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) ion channel family. Similarly, structures of the TRP melastatin (TRPM) ion channel family also showed a C-terminal coiled-coil surrounded by N-terminal cytoplasmic domains. This conserved architecture may indicate a common gating mechanism by which modification of cytoplasmic domains can transduce conformational changes to open the ion-conducting pore. We developed an in vitro system in which N-terminal ARDs and C-terminal coiled-coil domains can be expressed in bacteria and maintain the ability to interact. We tested three gating regulators: temperature; the polyphosphate compound IP6; and the covalent modifier allyl isothiocyanate to determine whether they alter N- and C-terminal interactions. We found that none of the modifiers tested abolished ARD-coiled-coil interactions, though there was a significant reduction at 37˚C. We found that coiled-coils tetramerize in a concentration dependent manner, with monomers and trimers observed at lower concentrations. Our system provides a method for examining the mechanism of oligomerization of TRPA1 cytoplasmic domains as well as a system to study the transmission of conformational changes resulting from covalent modification.
Project description:Kynureninase is a member of a large family of catalytically diverse but structurally homologous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes known as the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily or alpha-family. The Homo sapiens and other eukaryotic constitutive kynureninases preferentially catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine to produce 3-hydroxyanthranilate and l-alanine, while l-kynurenine is the substrate of many prokaryotic inducible kynureninases. The human enzyme was cloned with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag, expressed, and purified from a bacterial expression system using Ni metal ion affinity chromatography. Kinetic characterization of the recombinant enzyme reveals classic Michaelis-Menten behavior, with a Km of 28.3 +/- 1.9 microM and a specific activity of 1.75 micromol min-1 mg-1 for 3-hydroxy-dl-kynurenine. Crystals of recombinant kynureninase that diffracted to 2.0 A were obtained, and the atomic structure of the PLP-bound holoenzyme was determined by molecular replacement using the Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase structure (PDB entry 1qz9) as the phasing model. A structural superposition with the P. fluorescens kynureninase revealed that these two structures resemble the "open" and "closed" conformations of aspartate aminotransferase. The comparison illustrates the dynamic nature of these proteins' small domains and reveals a role for Arg-434 similar to its role in other AAT alpha-family members. Docking of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine into the human kynureninase active site suggests that Asn-333 and His-102 are involved in substrate binding and molecular discrimination between inducible and constitutive kynureninase substrates.
Project description:The geometric morphometric analysis of shape variation in complex biological structures such as the human skull poses a number of specific challenges: the registration of homologous morphologies, the treatment of bilateral symmetry, the graphical representation of form variability in three dimensions and the interpretation of the results in terms of differential growth processes. To visualize complex patterns of shape change, we propose an alternative to classical Cartesian deformation grids in the style of D'Arcy W. Thompson. Reference to the surface structures of the organism under investigation permits a comprehensive visual grasp of shape change and its tentative interpretation in terms of differential growth. The application of this method to the analysis of human craniofacial shape variation reveals distinct modes of growth and development of the neurocranial and viscerocranial regions of the skull. Our data further indicate that variations in the orientation of the viscerocranium relative to the neurocranium impinge on the shapes of the face and the cranial vault.
Project description:To evaluate the specificity for inhibition of expression of OC2 target genes we generated microarray data of 22Rv1 cells treated for 4, 6 and 16 hours with the small molecule inhibitor. Overall design: 22Rv1 cells treated for 4, 6 and 16 hours with the small compound