Project description:Resistance to chemotherapy by temozolomide (TMZ) is a major cause of glioblastoma (GBM) recurrence. So far, attempts to characterize factors that contribute to TMZ sensitivity have largely focused on protein-coding genes, and failed to provide effective therapeutic targets. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are essential regulators of epigenetic-driven cell diversification, yet, their contribution to the transcriptional response to drugs is less understood. Here, we performed RNA-seq and small RNA-seq to provide a comprehensive map of transcriptome regulation upon TMZ in patient-derived GBM stem-like cells displaying different drug sensitivity. In a search for regulatory mechanisms, we integrated thousands of molecular associations stored in public databases to generate a background "RNA interactome". Our systems-level analysis uncovered a coordinated program of TMZ response reflected by regulatory circuits that involve transcription factors, mRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs. We discovered 22 lncRNAs involved in regulatory loops and/or with functional relevance in drug response and prognostic value in gliomas. Thus, the investigation of TMZ-induced gene networks highlights novel RNA-based predictors of chemosensitivity in GBM. The computational modeling used to identify regulatory circuits underlying drug response and prioritizing gene candidates for functional validation is applicable to other datasets.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing has not been applied to protein-protein interactome network mapping so far because the association between the members of each interacting pair would not be maintained in en masse sequencing. We describe a massively parallel interactome-mapping pipeline, Stitch-seq, that combines PCR stitching with next-generation sequencing and used it to generate a new human interactome dataset. Stitch-seq is applicable to various interaction assays and should help expand interactome network mapping.
Project description:Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the failure of synthesizing and secreting of insulin because of destroyed pancreatic ?-cells. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is described by the decreased synthesis and secretion of insulin because of the defect in pancreatic ?-cells as well as by the failure of responding to insulin because of malfunctioning of insulin signaling. In order to understand the signaling mechanisms of responding to insulin, it is necessary to identify all components in the insulin signaling network. Here, an interaction network consisting of proteins that have statistically high probability of being biologically related to insulin signaling in Homo sapiens was reconstructed by integrating Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and interactome data. Furthermore, within this reconstructed network, interacting proteins which mediate the signal from insulin hormone to glucose transportation were identified using linear paths. The identification of key components functioning in insulin action on glucose metabolism is crucial for the efforts of preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:A Cartes d'Identite des Tumeurs (CIT) project from the French National League Against Cancer (http://cit.ligue-cancer.net ) 25 glioblastoma multiforme tumors hybridized on Illumina SNP and Affymetrix gene expression arrays. Project leader : François DUCRAY (email@example.com). CIT Analysis : Julien LAFFAIRE (firstname.lastname@example.org). Note: PFS : progression-free survival, OS: Overall Survival,BCNU : Carmustine (chemotherapy agent). RESPONDER: if the patient has shown or not shown a response to the treatment (Bevacizumab (Avastin) plus Irinotecan). Progression during : If the disease has progressed (cancer relapse or patient's death); otherwise (patient is alive without relapse).
Project description:Proteomics aids to the discovery and expansion of protein-protein interaction networks, which are key to understand molecular mechanisms in physiology and physiopathology, but also to infer protein function in a guilt-by-association fashion. In this study we use a systematic protein-protein interaction membrane yeast two-hybrid method to expand the interactome of TRPV2, a cation channel related to nervous system development. After validation of the interactome in silico, we define a TRPV2-interactome signature combining proteomics with the available physio-pathological data in Disgenet to find interactome-disease associations, highlighting nervous system disorders and neoplasms. The TRPV2-interactome signature against available experimental data is capable of discriminating overall risk in glioblastoma multiforme prognosis, progression, recurrence, and chemotherapy resistance. Beyond the impact on glioblastoma physiopathology, this study shows that combining systematic proteomics with in silico methods and available experimental data is key to open new perspectives to define novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics in disease.
Project description:Kynureninase is a member of a large family of catalytically diverse but structurally homologous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes known as the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily or alpha-family. The Homo sapiens and other eukaryotic constitutive kynureninases preferentially catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine to produce 3-hydroxyanthranilate and l-alanine, while l-kynurenine is the substrate of many prokaryotic inducible kynureninases. The human enzyme was cloned with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag, expressed, and purified from a bacterial expression system using Ni metal ion affinity chromatography. Kinetic characterization of the recombinant enzyme reveals classic Michaelis-Menten behavior, with a Km of 28.3 +/- 1.9 microM and a specific activity of 1.75 micromol min-1 mg-1 for 3-hydroxy-dl-kynurenine. Crystals of recombinant kynureninase that diffracted to 2.0 A were obtained, and the atomic structure of the PLP-bound holoenzyme was determined by molecular replacement using the Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase structure (PDB entry 1qz9) as the phasing model. A structural superposition with the P. fluorescens kynureninase revealed that these two structures resemble the "open" and "closed" conformations of aspartate aminotransferase. The comparison illustrates the dynamic nature of these proteins' small domains and reveals a role for Arg-434 similar to its role in other AAT alpha-family members. Docking of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine into the human kynureninase active site suggests that Asn-333 and His-102 are involved in substrate binding and molecular discrimination between inducible and constitutive kynureninase substrates.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest type of brain tumor. The median survival time for patients with GBM is only 15 months, even following maximal surgical resection and chemotherapy and radiation therapy. A genetic biomarker could enable a paradigm shift in precise diagnosis, personalized therapeutics and prognosis. In this study, we employed the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, The Cancer Genome Atlas, and the Ivy Glioblastoma Atlas Project databases for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and clinicopathological studies. We demonstrated that elevated expression of the RNF7, TCEB1, SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes, which encode components of cullin5-RING E3 ligase (CRL5), predict unfavorable GBM prognoses. In GBM and glioma cases carrying IDH1 mutations, SOCS1 and SOCS3 methylation was increased and their expression was downregulated. This study has thus identified a simple transcriptome signature for GBM prognosis.
Project description:Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-transmitted RNA virus causing joint and muscle pain. Although the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between nonstructural proteins of CHIKV have been extensively established, the complete CHIKV intraviral interactome remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined all possible CHIKV intraviral PPIs by immunoprecipitation and constructed the intraviral interactome of CHIKV. We reported 19 novel PPIs including the homo-oligomerization of TF. Disulfide bonds promoted the oligomerization of CHIKV TF protein. 2-BP, a palmitoylation inhibitor reduced the palmitoylation of TF and increased TF oligomerization. A quadruple mutant of Cys33, Cys35, Cys41, and Cys43 in TF blocked its palmitoylation and reduced oligomerization. Furthermore, we determined the association of TF with nsP1 and nsP3 in a palmitoylation-dependent manner. Construction of intraviral interactome of CHIKV provides the basis for further studying the function of CHIKV proteins.