Project description:We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to (i) search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, (ii) compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and (iii) upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera "Pinot Noir" cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related pathways and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant's immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu.
Project description:In plant cells, flavonoids are synthesized in the cytosol and then are transported and accumulated in the vacuole. Glutathione S-transferase-mediated transport has been proposed as a mechanism involved in flavonoid transport, however, whether binding of flavonoids to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or their transport is glutathione-dependent is not well understood. Glutathione S-transferases from Vitis vinífera (VviGSTs) have been associated with the transport of anthocyanins, however, their ability to transport other flavonoids such as proanthocyanidins (PAs) has not been established. Following bioinformatics approaches, we analyzed the capability of VviGST1, VviGST3, VviGST4, and Arabidopsis TT19 to bind different flavonoids. Analyses of protein-ligand interactions indicate that these GSTs can bind glutathione and monomers of anthocyanin, PAs and flavonols. A total or partial overlap of the binding sites for glutathione and flavonoids was found in VviGST1, and a similar condition was observed in VviGST3 using anthocyanin and flavonols as ligands, whereas VviGST4 and TT19 have both sites for GSH and flavonoids separated. To validate the bioinformatics predictions, functional complementation assays using the Arabidopsis tt19 mutant were performed. Overexpression of VviGST3 in tt19-1 specifically rescued the dark seed coat phenotype associated to correct PA transport, which correlated with higher binding affinity for PA precursors. VviGST4, originally characterized as an anthocyanin-related GST, complemented both the anthocyanin and PA deposition, resembling the function of TT19. By contrast, VviGST1 only partially rescued the normal seed color. Furthermore the expression pattern of these VviGSTs showed that each of these genes could be associated with the accumulation of different flavonoids in specific tissues during grapevine fruit development. These results provide new insights into GST-mediated PA transport in grapevine and suggest that VviGSTs present different specificities for flavonoid ligands. In addition, our data provide evidence to suggest that GST-mediate flavonoid transport is glutathione-dependent.
Project description:The wine industry is facing critical issues due to climate changes since production is established on very tight Genotype × Environment interaction bases. While, some cultivation practices may reduce adverse effects of abiotic stresses on the vines, e.g., the use of irrigation to mitigate drought, the deleterious impacts of warming on fruit development are difficult to manage. Elevated temperature alters grapevine fruit growth and composition, with a critical increase of the sugars/organic acids ratio. Select grapes with improved metabolite balances to offset high temperature effects is a valuable option to sustain viticulture. Unfortunately, the lack of knowledge about the genetic diversity for fruit traits impacted by temperature impairs the design of breeding programs. This study aimed to assess the variation in berry volume, main sugars and organic acids amounts in genetic resources. Fruit phenotyping focused on two critical stages of development: the end of green lag phase when organic acidity reaches its maximum, and the ripe stage when sugar unloading and water uptake stop. For that purpose, we studied a panel of 33 genotypes, including 12 grapevine varieties and 21 microvine offspring. To determine the date of sampling for each critical stage, fruit texture and growth were carefully monitored. Analyses at both stages revealed large phenotypic variation for malic and tartaric acids, as well as for sugars and berry size. At ripe stage, fruit fresh weight ranged from 1.04 to 5.25 g and sugar concentration from 751 to 1353 mmol.L-1. The content in organic acids varied both in quantity (from 80 to 361 meq.L-1) and in composition, with malic to tartaric acid ratio ranging from 0.13 to 3.62. At the inter-genotypic level, data showed no link between berry growth and osmoticum accumulation per fruit unit, suggesting that berry water uptake is not dependent only on fruit osmotic potential. Diversity among varieties for berry size, sugar accumulation and malic to tartaric acid ratio could be exploited through cross-breeding. This provides interesting prospects for improving grapevine to mitigate some adverse effects of climate warming on grapevine fruit volume and quality.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gene expression datasets in model plants such as Arabidopsis have contributed to our understanding of gene function and how a single underlying biological process can be governed by a diverse network of genes. The accumulation of publicly available microarray data encompassing a wide range of biological and environmental conditions has enabled the development of additional capabilities including gene co-expression analysis (GCA). GCA is based on the understanding that genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit comparable expression patterns over a range of experimental conditions, developmental stages and tissues. We present an open access database for the investigation of gene co-expression networks within the cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera. DESCRIPTION: The new gene co-expression database, VTCdb (http://vtcdb.adelaide.edu.au/Home.aspx), offers an online platform for transcriptional regulatory inference in the cultivated grapevine. Using condition-independent and condition-dependent approaches, grapevine co-expression networks were constructed using the latest publicly available microarray datasets from diverse experimental series, utilising the Affymetrix Vitis vinifera GeneChip (16 K) and the NimbleGen Grape Whole-genome microarray chip (29 K), thus making it possible to profile approximately 29,000 genes (95% of the predicted grapevine transcriptome). Applications available with the online platform include the use of gene names, probesets, modules or biological processes to query the co-expression networks, with the option to choose between Affymetrix or Nimblegen datasets and between multiple co-expression measures. Alternatively, the user can browse existing network modules using interactive network visualisation and analysis via CytoscapeWeb. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we present examples from three fundamental biological processes (berry development, photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis) whereby the recovered sub-networks reconfirm established plant gene functions and also identify novel associations. CONCLUSIONS: Together, we present valuable insights into grapevine transcriptional regulation by developing network models applicable to researchers in their prioritisation of gene candidates, for on-going study of biological processes related to grapevine development, metabolism and stress responses.
Project description:The first genome of Vitis vinifera vinifera (PN40024), published in 2007, boosted grapevine related studies. While this reference genome is a suitable tool for the overall studies in the field, it lacks the ability to unveil changes accumulated during V. v. vinifera domestication. The subspecies V. v. sylvestris preserves wild characteristics, making it a good material to provide insights into V. v. vinifera domestication. The difference in the reproductive strategy between both subspecies is one of the characteristics that set them apart. While V. v. vinifera flowers are hermaphrodite, V. v. sylvestris is mostly dioecious. In this paper, we compare the re-sequencing of the genomes from a male and a female individual of the wild sylvestris, against the reference vinifera genome (PN40024). Variant analysis reveals a low number but with high impact modifications in coding regions, essentially non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms and frame shifts caused by insertions and deletions. The sex-locus was manually inspected, and the results obtained are in line with the most recent works related with wild grapevine sex. In this paper we also describe for the first time RNA editing in transcripts of 14 genes in the sex-determining region, including VviYABBY and VviPLATZ.
Project description:Grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) is one of the most economically important virus diseases of grapevine (Vitis spp.) worldwide. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of cDNA libraries made from small RNAs (sRNAs) to compare profiles of sRNA populations recovered from own-rooted Merlot grapevines with and without GLRD symptoms. The data revealed the presence of sRNAs specific to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd), Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) and Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd-2) in symptomatic grapevines and sRNAs specific only to HpSVd, GYSVd-1 and GYSVd-2 in nonsymptomatic grapevines. In addition to 135 previously identified conserved microRNAs in grapevine (Vvi-miRs), we identified 10 novel and several candidate Vvi-miRs in both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic grapevine leaves based on the cloning of miRNA star sequences. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of selected conserved Vvi-miRs indicated that individual members of an miRNA family are differentially expressed in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic leaves. The high-resolution mapping of sRNAs specific to an ampelovirus and three viroids in mixed infections, the identification of novel Vvi-miRs and the modulation of certain conserved Vvi-miRs offers resources for the further elucidation of compatible host-pathogen interactions and for the provision of ecologically relevant information to better understand host-pathogen-environment interactions in a perennial fruit crop.
Project description:The identity of the four characteristic whorls of typical eudicots, namely, sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, is specified by the overlapping action of homeotic genes, whose single and combined contributions have been described in detail in the so-called ABCDE model. Continuous species-specific refinements and translations resulted in this model providing the basis for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms of flower development in model organisms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and other main plant species. Although grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) represents an extremely important cultivated fruit crop globally, studies related to the genetic determinism of flower development are still rare, probably because of the limited interest in sexual reproduction in a plant that is predominantly propagated asexually. Nonetheless, several studies have identified and functionally characterized some ABCDE orthologs in grapevine. The present study is intended to provide a comprehensive screenshot of the transcriptional behavior of 18 representative grapevine ABCDE genes encoding MADS-box transcription factors in a developmental kinetic process, from preanthesis to the postfertilization stage and in different flower organs, namely, the calyx, calyptra, anthers, filaments, ovary, and embryos. The transcript levels found were compared with the proposed model for Arabidopsis to evaluate their biological consistency. With a few exceptions, the results confirmed the expression pattern expected based on the Arabidopsis data.
Project description:The TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) protein, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) family, participates in the control of plant growth and development by regulating cell proliferation. Until now, a comprehensive study of concerning the TCP gene family and their roles in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has not been completed. Using bioinformatics approaches, 17 VvTCP genes were identified and further classified into two classes, designated class I (PCF subclass) and class II (CIN and CYC/TB1 subclass), which was further supported by exon-intron organizations and conserved motif analysis. Promoter analysis demonstrated that VvTCPs have numerous cis-acting elements related to plant growth and development, phytohormone, and abiotic/biotic stress responses. The singleton duplication of grapevine TCP genes contributed to this gene family expansion. The syntenic analyses among Vitis vinifera, Arabidopsis, and Oryza sativa showed that these genes located in corresponding syntenic blocks arose before the divergence of V. vinifera, Arabidopsis, and O. sativa. The expression levels of 17 VvTCPs were determined in different tissues and fruit developmental stages, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Seventeen VvTCPs exhibited distinct tissue-specific expression patterns, potentially illustrating the functional divergence of VvTCPs in all tested tissues. Eleven VvTCPs were down-regulated in five berry developmental stages, while three VvTCPs were up-regulated. Additionally, many members were strongly modulated by ABA treatment, suggesting these VvTCPs have important and diverse regulatory roles in ABA treatment. Our results provide valuable information on the evolution and functions of the VvTCPs, pave the way for further functional verification of these VvTCPs in grapevine.
Project description:Understanding how grapevines perceive and adapt to different environments will provide us with an insight into how to better manage crop quality. Mounting evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are a key interface between the environment and the genotype that ultimately affect the plant's phenotype. Moreover, it is now widely accepted that epigenetic mechanisms are a source of useful variability during crop varietal selection that could affect crop performance. While the contribution of DNA methylation to plant performance has been extensively studied in other major crops, very little work has been done in grapevine. To study the genetic and epigenetic diversity across 22 vineyards planted with the cultivar Shiraz in six wine sub-regions of the Barossa, South Australia. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphisms (MSAPs) were used to obtain global patterns of DNA methylation. The observed epigenetic profiles showed a high level of differentiation that grouped vineyards by their area of provenance despite the low genetic differentiation between vineyards and sub-regions. Pairwise epigenetic distances between vineyards indicate that the main contributor (23-24%) to the detected variability is associated to the distribution of the vineyards on the N-S axis. Analysis of the methylation profiles of vineyards pruned with the same system increased the positive correlation observed between geographic distance and epigenetic distance suggesting that pruning system affects inter-vineyard epigenetic differentiation. Finally, methylation sensitive genotyping by sequencing identified 3,598 differentially methylated genes in grapevine leaves that were assigned to 1,144 unique gene ontology terms of which 8.6% were associated with response to environmental stimulus. Our results suggest that DNA methylation differences between vineyards and sub-regions within The Barossa are influenced both by the geographic location and, to a lesser extent, by pruning system. Finally, we discuss how epigenetic variability can be used as a tool to understand and potentially modulate terroir in grapevine.
Project description:Somatic variation is a valuable source of trait diversity in clonally propagated crops. In grapevine, which has been clonally propagated worldwide for centuries, important phenotypes such as white berry colour are the result of genetic changes caused by transposable elements. Additionally, epiallele formation may play a role in determining geo-specific (‘terroir’) differences in grapes and thus ultimately in wine. This genomic plasticity might be co-opted for crop improvement via somatic embryogenesis, but that depends on a species-specific understanding of the epigenetic regulation of transposable element (TE) expression and silencing in these cultures. For this reason, we used whole-genome bisulphite sequencing, mRNA sequencing and small RNA sequencing to study the epigenetic status and expression of TEs in embryogenic callus, in comparison with leaf tissue. Overall design: Refer to individual Series