Project description:BACKGROUND:African indigenous taurine cattle display unique adaptive traits shaped by husbandry management, regional climate and exposure to endemic pathogens. They are less productive with respect to milk and meat production which has been associated with amongst others, small size, traditional beliefs, husbandry practices, limited feed resources, disease burden and lack of sustained breeding for trait improvement. This resulted in the severe dwindling of their population size rendering them vulnerable to extinction. The Namchi taurine cattle breed is referred to as [Namchi (Doayo)] and shows resistance traits against trypanosome infection and exposure to tick infestation. Nonetheless, the historically later introduced Zebu cattle are the main cattle breeds in Africa today, even though they suffer more from locally prevailing pathogens. By using a whole genome sequencing approach, we sequenced with high depth for the first time the genomes of five cattle breeds from Cameroon in order to provide a valuable genetic resource for future African cattle breeding: the Namchi, an endangered trypano-tolerant taurine breed, the Kapsiki, an indigenous trypano-susceptible taurine breed, and three Zebu (Bos indicus indicus) breeds: Ngaoundere Gudali, White Fulani and Red Fulani. RESULTS:Approximately 167 Gigabases of raw sequencing data were generated for each breed and mapped to the cattle reference genomes ARS-UCD1.2 and UMD3.1.The coverage was 103 to 140-fold when aligning the reads to ARS-UCD1.2 with an average mapping rate of ~?99%, and 22 to 30-fold when aligning the reads to UMD3.1 with an average mapping rate of ~?64%. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from analysis using the genome ARS-UCD1.2 were compared with reference genomes of European Bos taurus Holstein, the Asian Bos indicus Brahman, and the African trypanotolerant N'Dama breeds. A total of ~?100 million (M) SNPs were identified and 7.7?M of those were breed-specific. An approximately 11.1?M constituted of small insertions and deletions. By using only breed-specific non-synonymous variants we identified genes as genetic signatures and associated Gene Ontology (GO) terms that could explain certain cattle-breed specific phenotypes such as increased tolerance against trypanosome parasites in the Namchi breed and heat tolerance in the Kapsiki breed. Phylogenetic analysis grouped, except for Namchi, the Bos taurus breeds Kapsiki, N'Dama and Holstein together while the B. indicus breeds White and Red Fulani, Gudali and Brahman clustered separately. The deviating result for Namchi indicates a hybrid status of the selected animal with a recent introgression of Zebu genes into its genome. CONCLUSIONS:The findings provide the first comprehensive set of genome-wide variant data of the most important Cameroonian cattle breeds. The genomic data shall constitute a foundation for breed amelioration whilst exploiting the heritable traits and support conservation efforts for the endangered local cattle breeds.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Reference genomes are essential in the analysis of genomic data. As the cost of sequencing decreases, multiple reference genomes are being produced within species to alleviate problems such as low mapping accuracy and reference allele bias in variant calling that can be associated with the alignment of divergent samples to a single reference individual. The latest reference sequence adopted by the scientific community for the analysis of cattle data is ARS_UCD1.2, built from the DNA of a Hereford cow (Bos taurus taurus-B. taurus). A complementary genome assembly, UOA_Brahman_1, was recently built to represent the other cattle subspecies (Bos taurus indicus-B. indicus) from a Brahman cow haplotype to further support analysis of B. indicus data. In this study, we aligned the sequence data of 15 B. taurus and B. indicus breeds to each of these references.<h4>Results</h4>The alignment of B. taurus individuals against UOA_Brahman_1 detected up to five million more single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) compared to that against ARS_UCD1.2. Similarly, the alignment of B. indicus individuals against ARS_UCD1.2 resulted in one and a half million more SNVs than that against UOA_Brahman_1. The number of SNVs with nearly fixed alternative alleles also increased in the alignments with cross-subspecies. Interestingly, the alignment of B. taurus cattle against UOA_Brahman_1 revealed regions with a smaller than expected number of counts of SNVs with nearly fixed alternative alleles. Since B. taurus introgression represents on average 10% of the genome of Brahman cattle, we suggest that these regions comprise taurine DNA as opposed to indicine DNA in the UOA_Brahman_1 reference genome. Principal component and admixture analyses using genotypes inferred from this region support these taurine-introgressed loci. Overall, the flagged taurine segments represent 13.7% of the UOA_Brahman_1 assembly. The genes located within these segments were previously reported to be under positive selection in Brahman cattle, and include functional candidate genes implicated in feed efficiency, development and immunity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We report a list of taurine segments that are in the UOA_Brahman_1 assembly, which will be useful for the interpretation of interesting genomic features (e.g., signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity, increased mutation rate, etc.) that could appear in future re-sequencing analysis of indicine cattle.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>CNV comprises a large proportion in cattle genome and is associated with various traits. However, there were few population-scale comparison studies on cattle CNV.<h4>Results</h4>Here, autosome-wide CNVs were called by read depth of NGS alignment result and copy number variation regions (CNVRs) defined from 102 Eurasian taurine (EAT) of 14 breeds, 28 Asian indicine (ASI) of 6 breeds, 22 African taurine (AFT) of 2 breeds, and 184 African humped cattle (AFH) of 17 breeds. The copy number of every CNVRs were compared between populations and CNVRs with population differentiated copy numbers were sorted out using the pairwise statistics V<sub>ST</sub> and Kruskal-Wallis test. Three hundred sixty-two of CNVRs were significantly differentiated in both statistics and 313 genes were located on the population differentiated CNVRs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>For some of these genes, the averages of copy numbers were also different between populations and these may be candidate genes under selection. These include olfactory receptors, pathogen-resistance, parasite-resistance, heat tolerance and productivity related genes. Furthermore, breed- and individual-level comparison was performed using the presence or copy number of the autosomal CNVRs. Our findings were based on identification of CNVs from short Illumina reads of 336 individuals and 39 breeds, which to our knowledge is the largest dataset for this type of analysis and revealed important CNVs that may play a role in cattle adaption to various environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka) ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. METHODOLOGY: A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American) identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a-T1f). Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d) arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified "African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1). This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt), indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers.
Project description:Genomics research has relied principally on the establishment and curation of a reference genome for the species. However, it is increasingly recognized that a single reference genome cannot fully describe the extent of genetic variation within many widely distributed species. Pangenome representations are based on high-quality genome assemblies of multiple individuals and intended to represent the broadest possible diversity within a species. A Bovine Pangenome Consortium (BPC) has recently been established to begin assembling genomes from more than 600 recognized breeds of cattle, together with other related species to provide information on ancestral alleles and haplotypes. Previously reported de novo genome assemblies for Angus, Brahman, Hereford, and Highland breeds of cattle are part of the initial BPC effort. The present report describes a complete single haplotype assembly at chromosome-scale for a fullblood Simmental cow from an F1 bison-cattle hybrid fetus by trio binning. Simmental cattle, also known as Fleckvieh due to their red and white spots, originated in central Europe in the 1830s as a triple-purpose breed selected for draught, meat, and dairy production. There are over 50 million Simmental cattle in the world, known today for their fast growth and beef yields. This assembly (ARS_Simm1.0) is similar in length to the other bovine assemblies at 2.86 Gb, with a scaffold N50 of 102 Mb (max scaffold 156.8 Mb) and meets or exceeds the continuity of the best Bos taurus reference assemblies to date.
Project description:This article describes complete mitochondrial DNA displacement loop sequences from 32 Japanese Black cattle and the analysis of these data in conjunction with previously published sequences from African, European, and Indian subjects. The origins of North East Asian domesticated cattle are unclear. The earliest domestic cattle in the region were Bos taurus and may have been domesticated from local wild cattle (aurochsen; B. primigenius), or perhaps had an origin in migrants from the early domestic center of the Near East. In phylogenetic analyses, taurine sequences form a dense tree with a center consisting of intermingled European and Japanese sequences with one group of Japanese and another of all African sequences, each forming distinct clusters at extremes of the phylogeny. This topology and calibrated levels of sequence divergence suggest that the clusters may represent three different strains of ancestral aurochs, adopted at geographically and temporally separate stages of the domestication process. Unlike Africa, half of Japanese cattle sequences are topologically intermingled with the European variants. This suggests an interchange of variants that may be ancient, perhaps a legacy of the first introduction of domesticates to East Asia.
Project description:Various cattle populations in the Americas (known as criollo breeds) have an origin in some of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). These cattle constitute a potentially important genetic reserve as they are well adapted to local environments and show considerable variation in phenotype. To examine the genetic ancestry and diversity of Colombian criollo we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequence information for 110 individuals from seven breeds. Old World haplogroup T3 is the most commonly observed CR lineage in criollo (0.65), in agreement with a mostly European ancestry for these cattle. However, criollo also shows considerable frequencies of haplogroups T2 (0.9) and T1 (0.26), with T1 lineages in criollo being more diverse than those reported for West Africa. The distribution and diversity of Old World lineages suggest some North African ancestry for criollo, probably as a result of the Arab occupation of Iberia prior to the European migration to the New World. The mtDNA diversity of criollo is higher than that reported for European and African cattle and is consistent with a differentiated ancestry for some criollo breeds.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study was carried out to assess the haplotype diversity and population dynamics in cattle populations of Ethiopia. METHODS:We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 76 animals from five indigenous and one Holstein Friesian×Barka cross bred cattle populations. RESULTS:In the sequence analysis, 18 haplotypes were generated from 18 segregating sites and the average haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.7540±0.043 and 0.0010±0.000, respectively. The population differentiation analysis shows a weak population structure (4.55%) among the populations studied. Majority of the variation (95.45%) is observed by within populations. The overall average pair-wise distance (FST) was 0.049539 with the highest (FST = 0.1245) and the lowest (FST = 0.011) FST distances observed between Boran and Abigar, and Sheko and Abigar from the indigenous cattle, respectively. The phylogenetic network analysis revealed that all the haplotypes detected clustered together with the Bos taurus cattle and converged to a haplogroup. No haplotype in Ethiopian cattle was observed clustered with the reference Bos indicus group. The mismatch distribution analysis indicates a single population expansion event among the cattle populations. CONCLUSION:Overall, high haplotype variability was observed among Ethiopian cattle populations and they share a common ancestor with Bos taurus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bos taurus and Bos indicus are two main sub-species of cattle. However, the differential copy number variations (CNVs) between them are not yet well studied. RESULTS:Based on the new high-quality cattle reference genome ARS-UCD1.2, we identified 13,234 non-redundant CNV regions (CNVRs) from 73 animals of 10 cattle breeds (4 Bos taurus and 6 Bos indicus), by integrating three detection strategies. While 6990 CNVRs (52.82%) were shared by Bos taurus and Bos indicus, large CNV differences were discovered between them and these differences could be used to successfully separate animals into two subspecies. We found that 2212 and 538 genes uniquely overlapped with either indicine-specific CNVRs and or taurine-specific CNVRs, respectively. Based on FST, we detected 16 candidate lineage-differential CNV segments (top 0.1%) under selection, which overlapped with eight genes (CTNNA1, ENSBTAG00000004415, PKN2, BMPER, PDE1C, DNAJC18, MUSK, and PLCXD3). Moreover, we obtained 1.74 Mbp indicine-specific sequences, which could only be mapped on the Bos indicus reference genome UOA_Brahman_1. We found these sequences and their associated genes were related to heat resistance, lipid and ATP metabolic process, and muscle development under selection. We further analyzed and validated the top significant lineage-differential CNV. This CNV overlapped genes related to muscle cell differentiation, which might be generated from a retropseudogene of CTH but was deleted along Bos indicus lineage. CONCLUSIONS:This study presents a genome wide CNV comparison between Bos taurus and Bos indicus. It supplied essential genome diversity information for understanding of adaptation and phenotype differences between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations.