Project description:BACKGROUND:African indigenous taurine cattle display unique adaptive traits shaped by husbandry management, regional climate and exposure to endemic pathogens. They are less productive with respect to milk and meat production which has been associated with amongst others, small size, traditional beliefs, husbandry practices, limited feed resources, disease burden and lack of sustained breeding for trait improvement. This resulted in the severe dwindling of their population size rendering them vulnerable to extinction. The Namchi taurine cattle breed is referred to as [Namchi (Doayo)] and shows resistance traits against trypanosome infection and exposure to tick infestation. Nonetheless, the historically later introduced Zebu cattle are the main cattle breeds in Africa today, even though they suffer more from locally prevailing pathogens. By using a whole genome sequencing approach, we sequenced with high depth for the first time the genomes of five cattle breeds from Cameroon in order to provide a valuable genetic resource for future African cattle breeding: the Namchi, an endangered trypano-tolerant taurine breed, the Kapsiki, an indigenous trypano-susceptible taurine breed, and three Zebu (Bos indicus indicus) breeds: Ngaoundere Gudali, White Fulani and Red Fulani. RESULTS:Approximately 167 Gigabases of raw sequencing data were generated for each breed and mapped to the cattle reference genomes ARS-UCD1.2 and UMD3.1.The coverage was 103 to 140-fold when aligning the reads to ARS-UCD1.2 with an average mapping rate of ~?99%, and 22 to 30-fold when aligning the reads to UMD3.1 with an average mapping rate of ~?64%. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained from analysis using the genome ARS-UCD1.2 were compared with reference genomes of European Bos taurus Holstein, the Asian Bos indicus Brahman, and the African trypanotolerant N'Dama breeds. A total of ~?100 million (M) SNPs were identified and 7.7?M of those were breed-specific. An approximately 11.1?M constituted of small insertions and deletions. By using only breed-specific non-synonymous variants we identified genes as genetic signatures and associated Gene Ontology (GO) terms that could explain certain cattle-breed specific phenotypes such as increased tolerance against trypanosome parasites in the Namchi breed and heat tolerance in the Kapsiki breed. Phylogenetic analysis grouped, except for Namchi, the Bos taurus breeds Kapsiki, N'Dama and Holstein together while the B. indicus breeds White and Red Fulani, Gudali and Brahman clustered separately. The deviating result for Namchi indicates a hybrid status of the selected animal with a recent introgression of Zebu genes into its genome. CONCLUSIONS:The findings provide the first comprehensive set of genome-wide variant data of the most important Cameroonian cattle breeds. The genomic data shall constitute a foundation for breed amelioration whilst exploiting the heritable traits and support conservation efforts for the endangered local cattle breeds.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka) ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. METHODOLOGY: A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American) identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a-T1f). Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d) arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified "African-derived American" (AA) haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1). This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt), indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European settlers.
Project description:This article describes complete mitochondrial DNA displacement loop sequences from 32 Japanese Black cattle and the analysis of these data in conjunction with previously published sequences from African, European, and Indian subjects. The origins of North East Asian domesticated cattle are unclear. The earliest domestic cattle in the region were Bos taurus and may have been domesticated from local wild cattle (aurochsen; B. primigenius), or perhaps had an origin in migrants from the early domestic center of the Near East. In phylogenetic analyses, taurine sequences form a dense tree with a center consisting of intermingled European and Japanese sequences with one group of Japanese and another of all African sequences, each forming distinct clusters at extremes of the phylogeny. This topology and calibrated levels of sequence divergence suggest that the clusters may represent three different strains of ancestral aurochs, adopted at geographically and temporally separate stages of the domestication process. Unlike Africa, half of Japanese cattle sequences are topologically intermingled with the European variants. This suggests an interchange of variants that may be ancient, perhaps a legacy of the first introduction of domesticates to East Asia.
Project description:Various cattle populations in the Americas (known as criollo breeds) have an origin in some of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). These cattle constitute a potentially important genetic reserve as they are well adapted to local environments and show considerable variation in phenotype. To examine the genetic ancestry and diversity of Colombian criollo we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequence information for 110 individuals from seven breeds. Old World haplogroup T3 is the most commonly observed CR lineage in criollo (0.65), in agreement with a mostly European ancestry for these cattle. However, criollo also shows considerable frequencies of haplogroups T2 (0.9) and T1 (0.26), with T1 lineages in criollo being more diverse than those reported for West Africa. The distribution and diversity of Old World lineages suggest some North African ancestry for criollo, probably as a result of the Arab occupation of Iberia prior to the European migration to the New World. The mtDNA diversity of criollo is higher than that reported for European and African cattle and is consistent with a differentiated ancestry for some criollo breeds.
Project description:This study was carried out to assess the haplotype diversity and population dynamics in cattle populations of Ethiopia.We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 76 animals from five indigenous and one Holstein Friesian×Barka cross bred cattle populations.In the sequence analysis, 18 haplotypes were generated from 18 segregating sites and the average haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.7540±0.043 and 0.0010±0.000, respectively. The population differentiation analysis shows a weak population structure (4.55%) among the populations studied. Majority of the variation (95.45%) is observed by within populations. The overall average pair-wise distance (FST) was 0.049539 with the highest (FST = 0.1245) and the lowest (FST = 0.011) FST distances observed between Boran and Abigar, and Sheko and Abigar from the indigenous cattle, respectively. The phylogenetic network analysis revealed that all the haplotypes detected clustered together with the Bos taurus cattle and converged to a haplogroup. No haplotype in Ethiopian cattle was observed clustered with the reference Bos indicus group. The mismatch distribution analysis indicates a single population expansion event among the cattle populations.Overall, high haplotype variability was observed among Ethiopian cattle populations and they share a common ancestor with Bos taurus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bos taurus and Bos indicus are two main sub-species of cattle. However, the differential copy number variations (CNVs) between them are not yet well studied. RESULTS:Based on the new high-quality cattle reference genome ARS-UCD1.2, we identified 13,234 non-redundant CNV regions (CNVRs) from 73 animals of 10 cattle breeds (4 Bos taurus and 6 Bos indicus), by integrating three detection strategies. While 6990 CNVRs (52.82%) were shared by Bos taurus and Bos indicus, large CNV differences were discovered between them and these differences could be used to successfully separate animals into two subspecies. We found that 2212 and 538 genes uniquely overlapped with either indicine-specific CNVRs and or taurine-specific CNVRs, respectively. Based on FST, we detected 16 candidate lineage-differential CNV segments (top 0.1%) under selection, which overlapped with eight genes (CTNNA1, ENSBTAG00000004415, PKN2, BMPER, PDE1C, DNAJC18, MUSK, and PLCXD3). Moreover, we obtained 1.74 Mbp indicine-specific sequences, which could only be mapped on the Bos indicus reference genome UOA_Brahman_1. We found these sequences and their associated genes were related to heat resistance, lipid and ATP metabolic process, and muscle development under selection. We further analyzed and validated the top significant lineage-differential CNV. This CNV overlapped genes related to muscle cell differentiation, which might be generated from a retropseudogene of CTH but was deleted along Bos indicus lineage. CONCLUSIONS:This study presents a genome wide CNV comparison between Bos taurus and Bos indicus. It supplied essential genome diversity information for understanding of adaptation and phenotype differences between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations.
Project description:The fertility of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) is higher than that of the European purebred (Bos taurus) and crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) cattle in tropical areas. To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. Gel image analysis identified protein spots of interest which were then identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry quadrupole time-of-flight (LC MS/MS Q-TOF). STRING network analysis predicted interactions between at least 20 of the identified proteins. Among the identified proteins, a number of motility and energy related proteins were present in greater abundance in Kedah Kelantan. Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility.
Project description:DNA transposons helitrons are mobile genetic elements responsible for major movements of the genetic material within and across different genomes. This ability makes helitrons suitable candidate elements for the development of new approaches of multilocus genotyping of live-stock animals, along with the well-known microsatellite loci.We aimed to estimate the informativeness of helitron and microsatellite markers in assessing the consolidation and the "gene pool" standards of two commercial dairy cattle breeds (Ayrshire breed and holsteinized Black-and-White cattle) and one local breed of Kalmyk cattle, and to reveal any inter-breed difference in the organization of genomic regions flanked by helitrons in the studied cattle breeds.We used the combination of two highly-polymorphic genomic elements - helitrons and trinu-cleotide microsatellites (AGC)6G and (GAG)6C, respectively - for genome scanning of the sampled groups of cattle. Also, we pyrosequenced the genomic regions flanked by the inverted repeats of 3'-end of Heligloria family of helitron fragments.Generally, the both combinations of markers generated polymorphic spectra, based on which certain interbreed differentiation could be observed. The analysis of the identified interspersed repeats suggests that in factory and local cattle the genomic regions flanked by helitron fragments are shaped differently and contain different superfamilies of transposable elements, especially retrotransposons.Despite the well-known fact of retrotransposon-dependent microsatellite expansion, our data suggest that, in the cattle genome, the DNA transposons and microsatellites can also be found in close neighbourhood, and that helitrons and retrotransposons may form domains of increased variability - targets for factors of artificial selection.
Project description:The cattle (Bos taurus) genome was originally selected for sequencing due to its economic importance and unique biology as a model organism for understanding other ruminants, or mammals. Currently, there are two cattle genome sequence assemblies (UMD3.1 and Btau4.6) from groups using dissimilar assembly algorithms, which were complemented by genetic and physical map resources. However, past comparisons between these assemblies revealed substantial differences. Consequently, such discordances have engendered ambiguities when using reference sequence data, impacting genomic studies in cattle and motivating construction of a new optical map resource--BtOM1.0--to guide comparisons and improvements to the current sequence builds. Accordingly, our comprehensive comparisons of BtOM1.0 against the UMD3.1 and Btau4.6 sequence builds tabulate large-to-immediate scale discordances requiring mediation.The optical map, BtOM1.0, spanning the B. taurus genome (Hereford breed, L1 Dominette 01449) was assembled from an optical map dataset consisting of 2,973,315 (439 X; raw dataset size before assembly) single molecule optical maps (Rmaps; 1 Rmap?=?1 restriction mapped DNA molecule) generated by the Optical Mapping System. The BamHI map spans 2,575.30 Mb and comprises 78 optical contigs assembled by a combination of iterative (using the reference sequence: UMD3.1) and de novo assembly techniques. BtOM1.0 is a high-resolution physical map featuring an average restriction fragment size of 8.91 Kb. Comparisons of BtOM1.0 vs. UMD3.1, or Btau4.6, revealed that Btau4.6 presented far more discordances (7,463) vs. UMD3.1 (4,754). Overall, we found that Btau4.6 presented almost double the number of discordances than UMD3.1 across most of the 6 categories of sequence vs. map discrepancies, which are: COMPLEX (misassembly), DELs (extraneous sequences), INSs (missing sequences), ITs (Inverted/Translocated sequences), ECs (extra restriction cuts) and MCs (missing restriction cuts).Alignments of UMD3.1 and Btau4.6 to BtOM1.0 reveal discordances commensurate with previous reports, and affirm the NCBI's current designation of UMD3.1 sequence assembly as the "reference assembly" and the Btau4.6 as the "alternate assembly." The cattle genome optical map, BtOM1.0, when used as a comprehensive and largely independent guide, will greatly assist improvements to existing sequence builds, and later serve as an accurate physical scaffold for studies concerning the comparative genomics of cattle breeds.