Project description:, with different susceptibility to breast cancer and a mixed genetic background generated by backcrossing. It was observed that the aggressiveness of breast cancer negatively correlates with age, being lower in chronologically old mice, similar to what occurs in humans. Given that oxidative stress is associated with tumour susceptibility and the degree of aging, the association between the aggressiveness of breast cancer and multiple intermediate phenotypes directly or indirectly related to oxidative stress was studied. Using a mathematical model, we defined biological age and the degree of aging as the difference between biological and chronological ages. As a result, we observed that biologically old mice predominated among those that developed the disease early on, that is, those that were chronologically young. We then identified the specific and common genetic components of Quantitative Trait loci or QTL associated with different evolution of breast cancer, the intermediate phenotypes related to oxidative stress studied, the biological age and the degree of aging. Lastly, we showed that the expression pattern in the livers of biologically old mice were enriched in signalling pathways related to inflammation and response to infections; whereas the biologically young mice exhibited enriched pathways related to mitochondrial activity. For the explanation and discussion of these data refer to the research article cited above.
Project description:The incidence of breast cancer increases with age until menopause, and breast cancer is more aggressive in younger women. The existence of epidemiological links between breast cancer and aging indicates that both processes possibly share some common mechanisms of development. Oxidative stress is associated with both cancer susceptibility and aging. Here we observed that ERBB2-positive breast cancer, developed from genetically different ERBB2-positive transgenic mice generated by a backcross, is more aggressive in younger than in older mice, similar to what occurs in humans. In this cohort, we estimated the oxidative biological age using a mathematical model that integrated several subphenotypes directly or indirectly related to oxidative stress. This model included the serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and magnesium that were determined at a disease-free stage, and total AKT1 and glutathione concentrations in the liver at the time of necropsy. Later we defined the grade of aging due to oxidative stress as the increment of aging, which was the difference between the predicted biological age and the chronological age. This comparison permitted the identification of the biologically younger mice with less oxidative stress and older mice with more oxidative stress than would be expected according to their chronological age. Interestingly, biologically older mice developed more aggressive breast cancer than the biologically younger mice. We identified genomic regions on chromosomes 2 and 15 that were linked to the grade of oxidative aging. The levels of expression of Zbp1 located on chromosome 2, a gene related to necroptosis and inflammation, positively correlated with the grade of oxidative aging and tumour aggressiveness. This study shows part of the complex interactions between breast cancer and aging. Overall design: We have studied differential gene expression from livers in mice with different susceptibility with breast cancer. We evaluated 50 livers from mice with extreme values of grade of aging determined by a multivariate model.
Project description:Breast cancer biological characteristics change as age advances. Today, there is a lack of knowledge regarding age-specific molecular alterations that characterize breast tumours, notably in elderly patients. The vast majority of studies that aimed at exploring breast cancer in function of age are based on clinico-pathological data. Gene-expression signatures (GES), which in some ways capture biological information in a non-reductionist manner, represent powerful tools able to explore tumour heterogeneity.Twenty-five GES were used for functional annotation of breast tumours in function of age: five for molecular subtyping, seven for immune response, three for metabolism, seven for critical pathways in cancer and three for prognosis. Affymetrix® genomics datasets were exclusively used to avoid cross-platform normalization issues. Available corresponding clinico-pathological data were also retrieved and analysed.Fifteen publicly available datasets were pooled for a total of 2378 breast cancer patients (whole cohort), out of whom 1413 were of Caucasian origin. Three age groups were defined: ? 40 years (AG1), > 40 to < 70 years (AG2) and ? 70 years (AG3). We confirmed that age influenced the incidence of molecular subtypes. We found a significant growing incidence of luminal B and a decreasing kinetics for basal-like in function of age. We showed that AG3 luminal B tumours were less aggressive than AG1 luminal B tumours based on different GES (iron metabolism, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and reactive stroma), recurrence score prognostic GES and histological grade (SBR). Contrary to tumours of young patients, tumours of elderly patients concentrated favourable GES scores: high oestrogen receptor and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, low proliferation, basal-like, glycolysis, chromosomal instability and iron metabolism, and low GES prognostic scores (van't Veer 70-GES, genomic grade index and recurrence score).Functional annotation of breast tumours by means of 25 GES demonstrated a decreasing aggressiveness of breast tumours in function of age. This strategy, which can be strengthened by increasing the number of representative GES to gain more insight into biological systems involved in this disease, provides a framework to develop rational therapeutic strategies in function of age.
Project description:In this study, we quantified 249 mature micro-RNA (miRNA) transcripts in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) primary breast tumors of patients with lymph node-negative (LNN) disease to identify miRNAs associated with metastatic capability. In addition, the prognostic value of the candidate miRNAs was determined in ER(-)/LNN breast cancer. Unsupervised analysis in a prescreening set of 38 patients identified three subgroups predominantly driven by three miRNA signatures: an ER-driven luminal B-associated miRNA signature, a stromal miRNA signature, and an overexpressed miRNA cluster located on chromosome 19q23, but these intrinsic miRNA signatures were not associated with tumor aggressiveness. Supervised analysis in the initial subset and subsequent analysis in additional tumors significantly linked four miRNAs (miR-7, miR-128a, miR-210, and miR-516-3p) to ER(+)/LNN breast cancer aggressiveness (n = 147) and one miRNA (miR-210) to metastatic capability in ER(-)/LNN breast cancer (n = 114) and in the clinically important triple-negative subgroup (n = 69) (all P < 0.05). Bioinformatic analysis coupled miR-210 to hypoxia/VEGF signaling, miR-7 and miR-516-3p to cell cycle progression and chromosomal instability, and miR-128a to cytokine signaling. In conclusion, our work connects four miRNAs to breast cancer progression and to several distinct biological processes involved therein.
Project description:Histological tumor grade is a well-established marker of breast tumor aggressiveness and prognosis. A number of reproductive factors, including parity and age at first birth, have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk, but few studies have examined the association of these variables with breast cancer aggressiveness. In this study, 813 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were surveyed for demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Tumor grade and other clinical variables were abstracted from medical records. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed with each reproductive factor as the independent variable of interest. Regressions were also stratified on menopausal status, hormone therapy use, and tumor receptor status. None of the reproductive factors examined including age of first period, number of pregnancies, number of births, and hormone usage was statistically significantly associated with tumor grade. Although more studies are needed to determine whether other factors unexplored in this study are related to tumor aggressiveness, our study indicates that these factors do not predict the aggressiveness of breast cancers.
Project description:Breast cancer metastasis is a demanding problem in clinical treatment of patients with breast cancer. It is necessary to examine the mechanisms of metastasis for developing therapies. Classification of the aggressiveness of breast cancer is an important issue in biological study and for clinical decisions. Although aggressive and non?aggressive breast cancer cells can be easily distinguished among different cell lines, it is very difficult to distinguish in clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to use the gene expression analysis from breast cancer cell lines to predict clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer. Weighted gene co?expression network analysis (WGCNA) is a powerful method to account for correlations between genes and extract co?expressed modules of genes from large expression datasets. Therefore, WGCNA was applied to explore the differences in sub?networks between aggressive and non?aggressive breast cancer cell lines. The greatest difference topological overlap networks in both groups include potential information to understand the mechanisms of aggressiveness. The results show that the blue and red modules were significantly associated with the biological processes of aggressiveness. The sub?network, which consisted of TMEM47, GJC1, ANXA3, TWIST1 and C19orf33 in the blue module, was associated with an aggressive phenotype. The sub?network of LOC100653217, CXCL12, SULF1, DOK5 and DKK3 in the red module was associated with a non?aggressive phenotype. In order to validate the hazard ratio of these genes, the prognostic index was constructed to integrate them and examined using data from the Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Patients with breast cancer from TCGA in the high?risk group had a significantly shorter overall survival time compared with patients in the low?risk group (hazard ratio=1.231, 95% confidence interval=1.058?1.433, P=0.0071, by the Wald test). A similar result was produced from the GEO database. The findings may provide a novel strategy for measuring cancer aggressiveness in patients with breast cancer.
Project description:Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification.
Project description:Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is comprised of metabolically linked distinct compartments. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and nonproliferative carcinoma cells display a glycolytic metabolism, while proliferative carcinoma cells rely on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism fueled by the catabolites provided by the adjacent CAFs. Metabolic coupling between these reprogrammed compartments contributes to HNSCC aggressiveness. In this study, we examined the effects of cigarette smoke-exposed CAFs on metabolic coupling and tumor aggressiveness of HNSCC. Cigarette smoke (CS) extract was generated by dissolving cigarette smoke in growth media. Fibroblasts were cultured in CS or control media. HNSCC cells were cocultured in vitro and coinjected in vivo with CS or control fibroblasts. We found that CS induced oxidative stress, glycolytic flux and MCT4 expression, and senescence in fibroblasts. MCT4 upregulation was critical for fibroblast viability under CS conditions. The effects of CS on fibroblasts were abrogated by antioxidant treatment. Coculture of carcinoma cells with CS fibroblasts induced metabolic coupling with upregulation of the marker of glycolysis MCT4 in fibroblasts and markers of mitochondrial metabolism MCT1 and TOMM20 in carcinoma cells. CS fibroblasts increased CCL2 expression and macrophage migration. Coculture with CS fibroblasts also increased two features of carcinoma cell aggressiveness: resistance to cell death and enhanced cell migration. Coinjection of carcinoma cells with CS fibroblasts generated larger tumors with reduced apoptosis than control coinjections, and upregulation of MCT4 by CS exposure was a driver of these effects. We demonstrate that a tumor microenvironment exposed to CS is sufficient to modulate metabolism and cancer aggressiveness in HNSCC. IMPLICATIONS: CS shifts cancer stroma toward glycolysis and induces head and neck cancer aggressiveness with a mitochondrial profile linked by catabolite transporters and oxidative stress. VISUAL OVERVIEW: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/17/9/1893/F1.large.jpg.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2000 and Jun. 2003. Clinicopathologic variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (< 35 y, p = 0.003), and higher histologic and nuclear grade (p < 0.001). It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for bcl-2 expression (p < 0.001), positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (p = 0.003), and a high level of p53 (p < 0.001) and Ki67 expression (p < 0.00). The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median, 56.8 months) were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (p = 0.004). Relapse free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer (4-year RFS rate 85.5% vs. 94.2%, respectively; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple-negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. CONCLUSION: TN breast cancer had higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics than non-TN in node-negative breast cancer. Thus, TN breast cancer should be integrated into the risk factor analysis for node-negative breast cancer.
Project description:A guanine insertion polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter (MMP-1 2G) is linked to early onset and aggressiveness in cancer. We determined the role of MMP-1 2G on MMP-1 expression and breast cancer severity in patients with breast diseases. We observed no significant difference in genotype distribution among different disease groups. However, MMP-1 expression was significantly higher in atypical ductal hyperplasia than in benign breast disease and in invasive breast cancer compared to in situ breast cancer. MMP-1 2G insertion polymorphism in the invasive group also correlated significantly with the expression of MMP-1 and breast cancer prognostic markers HER2 and P53.