Project description:Rapeseed (Brassica napus), the second most important oilseed crop globally, originated from an interspecific hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. After this genome collision, B. napus underwent extensive genome restructuring, via homoeologous chromosome exchanges, resulting in widespread segmental deletions and duplications. Illicit pairing among genetically similar homoeologous chromosomes during meiosis is common in recent allopolyploids like B. napus, and post-polyploidization restructuring compounds the difficulties of assembling a complex polyploid plant genome. Specifically, genomic rearrangements between highly similar chromosomes are challenging to detect due to the limitation of sequencing read length and ambiguous alignment of reads. Recent advances in long read sequencing technologies provide promising new opportunities to unravel the genome complexities of B. napus by encompassing breakpoints of genomic rearrangements with high specificity. Moreover, recent evidence revealed ongoing genomic exchanges in natural B. napus, highlighting the need for multiple reference genomes to capture structural variants between accessions. Here we report the first long-read genome assembly of a winter B. napus cultivar. We sequenced the German winter oilseed rape accession 'Express 617' using 54.5x of long reads. Short reads, linked reads, optical map data and high-density genetic maps were used to further correct and scaffold the assembly to form pseudochromosomes. The assembled Express 617 genome provides another valuable resource for Brassica genomics in understanding the genetic consequences of polyploidization, crop domestication, and breeding of recently-formed crop species.
Project description:Over 1000 genetically linked RFLP loci in Brassica napus were mapped to homologous positions in the Arabidopsis genome on the basis of sequence similarity. Blocks of genetically linked loci in B. napus frequently corresponded to physically linked markers in Arabidopsis. This comparative analysis allowed the identification of a minimum of 21 conserved genomic units within the Arabidopsis genome, which can be duplicated and rearranged to generate the present-day B. napus genome. The conserved regions extended over lengths as great as 50 cM in the B. napus genetic map, equivalent to approximately 9 Mb of contiguous sequence in the Arabidopsis genome. There was also evidence for conservation of chromosome landmarks, particularly centromeric regions, between the two species. The observed segmental structure of the Brassica genome strongly suggests that the extant Brassica diploid species evolved from a hexaploid ancestor. The comparative map assists in exploiting the Arabidopsis genomic sequence for marker and candidate gene identification within the larger, intractable genomes of the Brassica polyploids.
Project description:Illumina mRNA-Seq is comparable to microarray analysis for transcript quantification but has increased sensitivity and, importantly, the potential to distinguish between homoeologous genes in polyploids. Using a novel curing process, we adapted a reference sequence that was a consensus derived from ESTs from both Brassica A and C genomes to one containing A and C genome versions for each of the 94,558 original unigenes. We aligned reads from Brassica napus to this cured reference, finding 38% more reads mapping in resynthesised lines and 28% in natural lines. Where the A and C versions differed at single nucleotide positions, termed inter-homoeologue polymorphisms (IHPs), we were able to apportion expression in the polyploid to the A or C genome homoeologues. 43,761 unigenes contained at least one IHP, with a mean frequency of 10.5 per kb unigene sequence. 6,350 of the unigenes with IHPs were differentially expressed between homoeologous gene pairs in resynthesised B. napus. 3,212 unigenes showed a similar pattern of differential expression across a range of natural B. napus crop varieties and, of these, 995 were in common with resynthesised B. napus. Functional classification showed over-representation in gene ontology categories not associated with dosage-sensitivity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous regulators of a broad range of physiological processes and act by either degrading mRNA or blocking its translation. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of the most important crops in China, Europe and other Asian countries with publicly available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic survey sequence (GSS) databases, but little is known about its miRNAs and their targets. To date, only 46 miRNAs have been identified in B. napus. RESULTS: Forty-one conserved and 62 brassica-specific candidate B. napus miRNAs, including 20 miRNA* sequences, were identified using Solexa sequencing technology. Furthermore, 33 non-redundant mRNA targets of conserved brassica miRNAs and 19 new non-redundant mRNA targets of novel brassica-specific miRNAs were identified by genome-scale sequencing of mRNA degradome. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes large scale cloning and characterization of B. napus miRNAs and their potential targets, providing the foundation for further characterization of miRNA function in the regulation of diverse physiological processes in B. napus.
Project description:Polyploidy often results in considerable changes in gene expression, both immediately and over evolutionary time. New phenotypes often arise with polyploid formation and may contribute to the fitness of polyploids in nature or their selection for use in agriculture. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is widely used to study the process of polyploidy both in artificially resynthesised and natural forms. mRNA-Seq, a recently developed approach to transcriptome profiling using deep-sequencing technologies is an alternative to microarrays for the study of gene expression in a polyploid.Illumina mRNA-Seq is comparable to microarray analysis for transcript quantification but has increased sensitivity and, very importantly, the potential to distinguish between homoeologous genes in polyploids. Using a novel curing process, we adapted a reference sequence that was a consensus derived from ESTs from both Brassica A and C genomes to one containing separate A and C genome versions for each of the 94,558 original unigenes. We aligned reads from B. napus to this cured reference, finding 38% more reads mapping from resynthesised lines and 28% more reads mapping from natural lines. Where the A and C versions differed at single nucleotide positions, termed inter-homoeologue polymorphisms (IHPs), we were able to apportion expression in the polyploid between the A and C genome homoeologues. 43,761 unigenes contained at least one IHP, with a mean frequency of 10.5 per kb unigene sequence. 6,350 of the unigenes with IHPs were differentially expressed between homoeologous gene pairs in resynthesised B. napus. 3,212 unigenes showed a similar pattern of differential expression across a range of natural B. napus crop varieties and, of these, 995 were in common with resynthesised B. napus. Functional classification showed over-representation in gene ontology categories not associated with dosage-sensitivity.mRNA-Seq is the method of choice for measuring transcript abundance in polyploids due to its ability to measure the contributions of homoeologues to gene expression. The identification of large numbers of differentially expressed genes in both a newly resynthesised polyploid and natural B. napus confirms that there are both immediate and long-term alterations in the expression of homoeologous gene pairs following polyploidy.
Project description:The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available.We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38) populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa.Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.
Project description:Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a close relative of the Brassica and most radish accessions are immune to the clubroot disease. A synthesized allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) between R. sativus cv. HQ-04 (2n = 18, RR) and Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra (L.H Bailey) (2n = 18, CC) proved resistant of multiple clubroot disease pathogen P. brassicae. To predict the possibility to transfer the clubroot resistance trait from the RR subgenome of allotetraploid Brassicoraphanus (RRCC, 2n = 36) into Brassica napus (AACC, 2n = 38), we analyzed the frequency of chromosome pairings in the F1 hybrids produced from a cross between B. napus cv. HS5 and the allotetraploid, characterize the genomic composition of some backcrossed progeny (BC1) using GISH, BAC-FISH and AFLP techniques. The level of intergenomic pairing between A and R genomes in the F1 hybrid was high, allosyndetic bivalents formed in 73.53% PMCs indicative of significant level of homeologous recombination between two genomes and high probability of incorporating chromosomal segments/genes from R-genome into A/C-genomes. The BC1 plants inherited variant extra R chromosomes or fragments from allotetraploid as revealed by GISH and AFLP analysis. 13.51% BC2 individuals were resistant to clubroot disease, and several resistance lines had high pollen fertility, Overall, the genetic material presented in this work represents a potential new genetic resource for practical use in breeding B. napus clubroot resistant cultivars.
Project description:The recently published genome of Brassica napus offers for the first time the opportunity to gain insights into the genomic organization and the evolution of miRNAs in oilseed rape. In this study, 12 small RNA libraries from two B. napus cultivars (Tapidor and Ningyou7) and their four double-haploid lines were sequenced, employing the newly sequenced B. napus genome, together with genomes of its progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. A total of 645 miRNAs including 280 conserved and 365 novel miRNAs were identified. Comparative analysis revealed a high level of genomic conservation of MIRNAs (75.9%) between the subgenomes of B. napus and its two progenitors' genomes, and MIRNA lost/gain events (133) occurred in B. napus after its speciation. Furthermore, significant partitioning of miRNA expressions between the two subgenomes in B. napus was detected. The data of degradome sequencing, miRNA-mediated cleavage, and expression analyses support specific interactions between miRNAs and their targets in the modulation of diverse physiological processes in roots and leaves, as well as in biosynthesis of, for example, glucosinolates and lipids in oilseed rape. These data provide a first genome-wide view on the origin, evolution, and genomic organization of B. napus MIRNAs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Substance transport in higher land plants is mediated by vascular bundles, consisting of phloem and xylem strands that interconnect all plant organs. While the phloem mainly allocates photoassimilates, the role of the xylem is the transport of water and inorganic nutrients from roots to all aerial plant parts. Only recently it was noticed that in addition to mineral salts, xylem sap contains organic nutrients and even proteins. Although these proteins might have important impact on the performance of above-ground organs, only a few of them have been identified so far and their physiological functions are still unclear. RESULTS: We used root-pressure xylem exudate, collected from cut Brassica napus stems, to extract total proteins. These protein preparations were then separated by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). After individual tryptic digests of the most abundant coomassie-stained protein spots, partial peptide sequence information was deduced from tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) fragmentation spectra and subsequently used for protein identifications by database searches. This approach resulted in the identification of 69 proteins. These identifications include different proteins potentially involved in defence-related reactions and cell wall metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of the most abundant proteins present in xylem sap of Brassica napus. A number of 69 proteins could be identified from which many previously were not known to be localized to this compartment in any other plant species. Since Brassica napus, a close relative of the fully sequenced model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, was used as the experimental system, our results provide a large number of candidate proteins for directed molecular and biochemical analyses of the physiological functions of the xylem under different environmental and developmental conditions. This approach will allow exploiting many of the already established functional genomic resources, like i.e. the large mutant collections, that are available for Arabidopsis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping. RESULTS: More than 113,000 RAD clusters with more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 125 insertions/deletions were detected and characterized. About one third of the RAD clusters and polymorphisms mapped to the Brassica rapa reference sequence. An even distribution of RAD clusters and polymorphisms was observed across the B. rapa chromosomes, which suggests that there might be an equal distribution over the Brassica oleracea chromosomes, too. The representation of Gene Ontology (GO) terms for unigenes with RAD clusters and polymorphisms revealed no signature of selection with respect to the distribution of polymorphisms within genes belonging to a specific GO category. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the decreasing costs for next-generation sequencing, the results of our study suggest that RAD sequencing is not only a simple and cost-effective method for high-density polymorphism detection but also an alternative to SNP genotyping from transcriptome sequencing or SNP arrays, even for species with complex genomes such as B. napus.