Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Agrocybe aegerita, the black poplar mushroom, has been highly valued as a functional food for its medicinal and nutritional benefits. Several bioactive extracts from A. aegerita have been found to exhibit antitumor and antioxidant activities. However, limited genetic resources for A. aegerita have hindered exploration of this species.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>To facilitate the research on A. aegerita, we established a deep survey of the transcriptome and proteome of this mushroom. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina) to sequence A. aegerita transcriptomes from mycelium and fruiting body. The raw clean reads were de novo assembled into a total of 36,134 expressed sequences tags (ESTs) with an average length of 663 bp. These ESTs were annotated and classified according to Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. Gene expression profile analysis showed that 18,474 ESTs were differentially expressed, with 10,131 up-regulated in mycelium and 8,343 up-regulated in fruiting body. Putative genes involved in polysaccharide and steroid biosynthesis were identified from A. aegerita transcriptome, and these genes were differentially expressed at the two stages of A. aegerita. Based on one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DGE) coupled with electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-ESI-MS/MS), we identified a total of 309 non-redundant proteins. And many metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis were identified in the protein database.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>This is the first study on transcriptome and proteome analyses of A. aegerita. The data in this study serve as a resource of A. aegerita transcripts and proteins, and offer clues to the applications of this mushroom in nutrition, pharmacy and industry.
Project description:A comparative study of variable domains V4, V6, and V9 of the mitochondrial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA was carried out with the genus Agrocybe by PCR amplification of 42 wild isolates belonging to 10 species, Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe dura, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agrocybe erebia, Agrocybe firma, Agrocybe praecox, Agrocybe paludosa, Agrocybe pediades, Agrocybe alnetorum, and Agrocybe vervacti. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the three domains in the isolates belonging to the same species were the same length and had the same sequence, while variations were found among the 10 species. Alignment of the sequences showed that nucleotide motifs encountered in the smallest sequence of each variable domain were also found in the largest sequence, indicating that the sequences evolved by insertion-deletion events. Determination of the secondary structure of each domain revealed that the insertion-deletion events commonly occurred in regions not directly involved in the secondary structure (i.e., the loops). Moreover, conserved sequences ranging from 4 to 25 nucleotides long were found at the beginning and end of each domain and could constitute genus-specific sequences. Comparisons of the V4, V6, and V9 secondary structures resulted in identification of the following four groups: (i) group I, which was characterized by the presence of additional P23-1 and P23-3 helices in the V4 domain and the lack of the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. aegerita, A. chaxingu, and A. erebia; (ii) group II, which had the P23-3 helix in V4 and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. pediades; (iii) group III, which did not have additional helices in V4, had the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. paludosa, A. firma, A. alnetorum, and A. praecox; and (iv) group IV, which lacked both the V4 additional helices and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. vervacti and A. dura. This grouping of species was supported by the structure of a consensus tree based on the variable domain sequences. The conservation of the sequences of the V4, V6, and V9 domains of the mitochondrial SSU rRNA within species and the high degree of interspecific variation found in the Agrocybe species studied open the way for these sequences to be used as specific molecular markers of the Basidiomycota.
Project description:O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is a reversible post-translational modification that plays essential roles in many cellular pathways. Research in this field, however, is hampered by the lack of suitable probes to identify, accumulate, and purify the O-GlcNAcylated proteins. We have previously reported the identification of a lectin from the mushroom Agrocybe aegerita, i.e., Agrocybe aegerita lectin 2, or AAL2, that could bind terminal N-acetylglucosamine with higher affinities and specificity than other currently used probes. In this paper, we report the crystal structures of AAL2 and its complexes with GlcNAc and GlcNAc?1-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc and reveal the structural basis of GlcNAc recognition by AAL2 and residues essential for the binding of terminal N-acetylglucosamine. Study on AAL2 may enable us to design a protein probe that can be used to identify and purify O-GlcNAcylated proteins more efficiently.
Project description:Two novel fomannosane-type sesquiterpenoids, agrocybins H (1) and I (2), together with a known compound illudosin (3), were isolated from the culture broth of the mushroom Agrocybe salicacola. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The relative stereochemistry of 1 was determined by the use of single crystal X-ray crystallographic diffraction. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/s13659-012-0031-2 and is accessible for authorized users.
Project description:Agrocybe cylindracea, an edible mushroom, is widely cultivated for its abundance of nutrients and flavor, and many of its metabolites are reported to have beneficial roles, such as medicinal effects on tumors and chronical illnesses. However, the lack of genomic information has hindered further molecular studies on this fungus. Here, we present a genome assembly of A. cylindracea together with comparative genomics and pathway analyses of Agaricales species. The draft, generated from both next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platforms to overcome high genetic heterozygosity, is composed of a 56.5 Mb sequence and 15,384 predicted genes. This mushroom possesses a complex reproductive system, including tetrapolar heterothallic and secondary homothallic mechanisms, and harbors several hydrolases and peptidases for gradual and effective degradation of various carbon sources. Our pathway analysis reveals complex processes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides and other active substances, including B vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and N-acetylglucosamine. RNA-seq data show that A. cylindracea stipes tend to synthesize carbohydrate for carbon sequestration and energy storage, whereas pilei are more active in carbon utilization and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. These results reflect diverse functions of the two anatomical structures of the fruiting body. Our comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic data, as well as preliminary comparative analyses, provide insights into the molecular details of the medicinal effects in terms of active compounds and nutrient components.
Project description:The edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita produces a ribotoxin-like protein known as Ageritin. In this work, the gene encoding Ageritin was characterized by sequence analysis. It contains several typical features of fungal genes such as three short introns (60, 55 and 69 bp) located at the 5' region of the coding sequence and typical splice junctions. This sequence codes for a precursor of 156 amino acids (~17-kDa) containing an additional N-terminal peptide of 21 amino acid residues, absent in the purified toxin (135 amino acid residues; ~15-kDa). The presence of 17-kDa and 15-kDa forms was investigated by Western blot in specific parts of fruiting body and in mycelia of A. aegerita. Data show that the 15-kDa Ageritin is the only form retrieved in the fruiting body and the principal form in mycelium. The immunolocalization by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy proves that Ageritin has vacuolar localization in hyphae. Coupling these data with a bioinformatics approach, we suggest that the N-terminal peptide of Ageritin (not found in the purified toxin) is a new signal peptide in fungi involved in intracellular routing from endoplasmic reticulum to vacuole, necessary for self-defense of A. aegerita ribosomes from Ageritin toxicity.