Project description:Characterization of genomic structural variation (SV) is essential to expanding the research and clinical applications of genome sequencing. Reliance upon short DNA fragment paired end sequencing has yielded a wealth of single nucleotide variants and internal sequencing read insertions-deletions, at the cost of limited SV detection. Multi-kilobase DNA fragment mate pair sequencing has supplemented the void in SV detection, but introduced new analytic challenges requiring SV detection tools specifically designed for mate pair sequencing data. Here, we introduce SVachra - Structural Variation Assessment of CHRomosomal Aberrations, a breakpoint calling program that identifies large insertions-deletions, inversions, inter- and intra-chromosomal translocations utilizing both inward and outward facing read types generated by mate pair sequencing.We demonstrate SVachra's utility by executing the program on large-insert (Illumina Nextera) mate pair sequencing data from the personal genome of a single subject (HS1011). An additional data set of long-read (Pacific BioSciences RSII) was also generated to validate SV calls from SVachra and other comparison SV calling programs. SVachra exhibited the highest validation rate and reported the widest distribution of SV types and size ranges when compared to other SV callers.SVachra is a highly specific breakpoint calling program that exhibits a more unbiased SV detection methodology than other callers.
Project description:Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.
Project description:Whole genome sequencing of paired-end reads can be applied to characterize the landscape of large somatic rearrangements of cancer genomes. Several methods for detecting structural variants with whole genome sequencing data have been developed. So far, none of these methods has combined information about abnormally mapped read pairs connecting rearranged regions and associated global copy number changes automatically inferred from the same sequencing data file. Our aim was to create a computational method that could use both types of information, i.e. normal and abnormal reads, and demonstrate that by doing so we can highly improve both sensitivity and specificity rates of structural variant prediction.We developed a computational method, SV-Bay, to detect structural variants from whole genome sequencing mate-pair or paired-end data using a probabilistic Bayesian approach. This approach takes into account depth of coverage by normal reads and abnormalities in read pair mappings. To estimate the model likelihood, SV-Bay considers GC-content and read mappability of the genome, thus making important corrections to the expected read count. For the detection of somatic variants, SV-Bay makes use of a matched normal sample when it is available. We validated SV-Bay on simulated datasets and an experimental mate-pair dataset for the CLB-GA neuroblastoma cell line. The comparison of SV-Bay with several other methods for structural variant detection demonstrated that SV-Bay has better prediction accuracy both in terms of sensitivity and false-positive detection rate.https://github.com/InstitutCurie/SV-Bayvalentina.email@example.comSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Copy number variation (CNV) is a common form of structural variation detected in human genomes, occurring as both constitutional and somatic events. Cytogenetic techniques like chromosomal microarray (CMA) are widely used in analyzing CNVs. However, CMA techniques cannot resolve the full nature of these structural variations (i.e. the orientation and location of associated breakpoint junctions) and must be combined with other cytogenetic techniques, such as karyotyping or FISH, to do so. This makes the development of a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach capable of resolving both CNVs and breakpoint junctions desirable. Mate-pair sequencing (MPseq) is a NGS technology designed to find large structural rearrangements across the entire genome. Here we present an algorithm capable of performing copy number analysis from mate-pair sequencing data. The algorithm uses a step-wise procedure involving normalization, segmentation, and classification of the sequencing data. The segmentation technique combines both read depth and discordant mate-pair reads to increase the sensitivity and resolution of CNV calls. The method is particularly suited to MPseq, which is designed to detect breakpoint junctions at high resolution. This allows for the classification step to accurately calculate copy number levels at the relatively low read depth of MPseq. Here we compare results for a series of hematological cancer samples that were tested with CMA and MPseq. We demonstrate comparable sensitivity to the state-of-the-art CMA technology, with the benefit of improved breakpoint resolution. The algorithm provides a powerful analytical tool for the analysis of MPseq results in cancer.
Project description:Recently, microarrays have replaced karyotyping as a first tier test in patients with idiopathic intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (ID/MCA) in many laboratories. Although in about 14-18% of such patients, DNA copy-number variants (CNVs) with clinical significance can be detected, microarrays have the disadvantage of missing balanced rearrangements, as well as providing no information about the genomic architecture of structural variants (SVs) like duplications and complex rearrangements. Such information could possibly lead to a better interpretation of the clinical significance of the SV. In this study, the clinical use of mate pair next-generation sequencing was evaluated for the detection and further characterization of structural variants within the genomes of 50 ID/MCA patients. Thirty of these patients carried a chromosomal aberration that was previously detected by array CGH or karyotyping and suspected to be pathogenic. In the remaining 20 patients no causal SVs were found and only benign aberrations were detected by conventional techniques. Combined cluster and coverage analysis of the mate pair data allowed precise breakpoint detection and further refinement of previously identified balanced and (complex) unbalanced aberrations, pinpointing the causal gene for some patients. We conclude that mate pair sequencing is a powerful technology that can provide rapid and unequivocal characterization of unbalanced and balanced SVs in patient genomes and can be essential for the clinical interpretation of some SVs.
Project description:We present the discovery of genes recurrently involved in structural variation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and the identification of a novel type of somatic structural variant. We identified the variants with high complexity mate-pair libraries and a novel computational algorithm specifically designed for tumor-normal comparisons, SMASH. SMASH combines signals from split reads and mate-pair discordance to detect somatic structural variants. We demonstrate a >90% validation rate and a breakpoint reconstruction accuracy of 3 bp by Sanger sequencing. Our approach identified three in-frame gene fusions (YAP1-MAML2, PTPLB-RSRC1, and SP3-PTK2) that had strong levels of expression in corresponding NPC tissues. We found two cases of a novel type of structural variant, which we call "coupled inversion," one of which produced the YAP1-MAML2 fusion. To investigate whether the identified fusion genes are recurrent, we performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to screen 196 independent NPC cases. We observed recurrent rearrangements of MAML2 (three cases), PTK2 (six cases), and SP3 (two cases), corresponding to a combined rate of structural variation recurrence of 6% among tested NPC tissues.
Project description:Copy-number variants (CNVs) are a major source of genetic variation in human health and disease. Previous studies have implicated replication stress as a causative factor in CNV formation. However, existing data are technically limited in the quality of comparisons that can be made between human CNVs and experimentally induced variants. Here, we used two high-resolution strategies-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and mate-pair sequencing-to compare CNVs that occur constitutionally to those that arise following aphidicolin-induced DNA replication stress in the same human cells. Although the optimized methods provided complementary information, sequencing was more sensitive to small variants and provided superior structural descriptions. The majority of constitutional and all aphidicolin-induced CNVs appear to be formed via homology-independent mechanisms, while aphidicolin-induced CNVs were of a larger median size than constitutional events even when mate-pair data were considered. Aphidicolin thus appears to stimulate formation of CNVs that closely resemble human pathogenic CNVs and the subset of larger nonhomologous constitutional CNVs.
Project description:Copy number variants (CNVs) are a major source of genetic variation in human health and disease. Previous studies have suggested replication stress, such as that caused by the polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin, as a causative factor in CNV formation, but existing data are technically limited in the quality of the comparisons which can be made to experimentally induced variants. Here we used 1M feature single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and mate-pair sequencing as high resolution methods for characterizing CNVs in a common set of samples, to compare both the properties of constitutional and induced CNVs as well as the utility of the two methods in an experimental setting. Although the optimized methods provided complementary information, sequencing was more sensitive to small variants and provided superior structural descriptions that allowed some CNVs to be associated with inversions, ectopic duplications or LINE insertions. The majority of constitutional and all aphidicolin-induced CNVs appear to be formed via homology-independent mechanisms, while aphidicolin-induced CNVs were of a larger median size than constitutional events even when mate-pair data were considered. Aphidicolin thus appears to stimulate formation of CNVs that closely resemble human pathogenic CNVs and the subset of larger nonhomologous constitutional CNVs. Overall design: One untreated and one aphidicolin-treated subclone of human fibroblast cell line HGMDFN090 were analyzed by Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad SNP array and low-density mate-pair sequencing.
Project description:We used a Drosophila melanogaster line (a "double balancer") carrying balancer chromosomes for both the second (CyO) and third (TM3) chromosomes. We crossed the double balancer to an isogenic wild-type "virginizer" line to obtain trans-heterozygous adults from the F1 generation. Whole-genome sequencing and mate pair sequencing were used to identify Single Nucleotide Variants (SNVs) and Structural Variants (SVs) on both chromosomes.
Project description:Reciprocal translocations are the most frequently occurring constitutional structural rearrangements in mammalian genomes. In phenotypically normal pigs, an incidence of 1/200 is estimated for such rearrangements. Even if constitutional translocations do not necessarily induce defects and diseases, they are responsible for significant economic losses in domestic animals due to reproduction failures. Over the last 30 years, advances in molecular and cytogenetic technologies have led to major improvements in the resolution of the characterization of translocation events. Characterization of translocation breakpoints helps to decipher the mechanisms that lead to such rearrangements and the functions of the genes that are involved in the translocation. Here, we describe the fine characterization of a reciprocal translocation t(3;4) (p1.3;q1.5) detected in a pig line. The breakpoint was identified at the base-pair level using a positional cloning and chromosome walking strategy in somatic cell hybrids that were generated from an animal that carries this translocation. We show that this translocation occurs within the ADAMTSL4 gene and results in a loss of expression in homozygous carriers. In addition, by taking this translocation as a model, we used a whole-genome next-generation mate-pair sequencing approach on pooled individuals to evaluate this strategy for high-throughput screening of structural rearrangements.