Project description:BACKGROUND:Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), a halophytic warm-seasoned perennial grass, is tolerant of many environmental stresses, especially salt stress. To investigate molecular mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance in seashore paspalum, physiological characteristics and global transcription profiles of highly (Supreme) and moderately (Parish) salinity-tolerant cultivars under normal and salt stressed conditions were analyzed. RESULTS:Physiological characterization comparing highly (Supreme) and moderately (Parish) salinity-tolerant cultivars revealed that Supreme's higher salinity tolerance is associated with higher Na+ and Ca2+ accumulation under normal conditions and further increase of Na+ under salt-treated conditions (400?mM NaCl), possibly by vacuolar sequestration. Moreover, K+ retention under salt treatment occurs in both cultivars, suggesting that it may be a conserved mechanism for prevention of Na+ toxicity. We sequenced the transcriptome of the two cultivars under both normal and salt-treated conditions (400?mM NaCl) using RNA-seq. De novo assembly of about 153 million high-quality reads and identification of Open Reading Frames (ORFs) uncovered a total of 82,608 non-redundant unigenes, of which 3250 genes were identified as transcription factors (TFs). Gene Ontology (GO) annotation revealed the presence of genes involved in diverse cellular processes in seashore paspalum's transcriptome. Differential expression analysis identified a total of 828 and 2222 genes that are responsive to high salinity for Supreme and Parish, respectively. "Oxidation-reduction process" and "nucleic acid binding" are significantly enriched GOs among differentially expressed genes in both cultivars under salt treatment. Interestingly, compared to Parish, a number of salt stress induced transcription factors are enriched and show higher abundance in Supreme under normal conditions, possibly due to enhanced Ca2+ signaling transduction out of Na+ accumulation, which may be another contributor to Supreme's higher salinity tolerance. CONCLUSION:Physiological and transcriptome analyses of seashore paspalum reveal major molecular underpinnings contributing to plant response to salt stress in this halophytic warm-seasoned perennial grass. The data obtained provide valuable molecular resources for functional studies and developing strategies to engineer plant salinity tolerance.
Project description:Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is among the most salt- and cadmium-tolerant warm-season perennial grass species widely used as turf or forage. The objective of this study was to select stable reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of seashore paspalum in response to four abiotic stresses. The stability of 12 potential reference genes was evaluated by four programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). U2AF combined with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) showed stable expression in Cd-treated leaves and cold-treated roots. U2AF and FBOX were the most stable reference genes in Cd-treated roots and cold-treated leaves. In Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)- or salt-treated roots, the reference gene U2AF paired with either ACT or CYP were stable. SAND and CACS exhibited the most stability in salt-treated leaves, and combining UPL, PP2A, and EF1a was most suitable for PEG-treated leaves. The stability of U2AF and instability of UPL and TUB was validated by analyzing the expression levels of four target genes (MT2a, VP1, PIP1, and Cor413), and were shown to be capable of detecting subtle changes in expression levels of the target genes in seashore paspalum. This study demonstrated that FBOX, U2AF, and PP2A could be used in future molecular studies that aim to understand the mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in seashore paspalum.
Project description:As a step towards trait mapping in the halophyte seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Sw.), we developed an F<sub>1</sub> mapping population from a cross between two genetically diverse and heterozygous accessions, 509022 and HI33. Progeny were genotyped using a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach and sequence reads were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the UGbS-Flex pipeline. More markers were identified that segregated in the maternal parent (HA maps) compared to the paternal parent (AH maps), suggesting that 509022 had overall higher levels of heterozygosity than HI33. We also generated maps that consisted of markers that were heterozygous in both parents (HH maps). The AH, HA and HH maps each comprised more than 1000 markers. Markers formed 10 linkage groups, corresponding to the ten seashore paspalum chromosomes. Comparative analyses showed that each seashore paspalum chromosome was syntenic to and highly colinear with a single sorghum chromosome. Four inversions were identified, two of which were sorghum-specific while the other two were likely specific to seashore paspalum. These high-density maps are the first available genetic maps for seashore paspalum. The maps will provide a valuable tool for plant breeders and others in the Paspalum community to identify traits of interest, including salt tolerance.