Project description:Sex determination evolves rapidly, often because of turnover of the genes at the top of the pathway. The house fly, Musca domestica, has a multifactorial sex determination system, allowing us to identify the selective forces responsible for the evolutionary turnover of sex determination in action. There is a male determining factor, M, on the Y chromosome (Y^M), which is probably the ancestral state. An M factor on the third chromosome (III^M) has reached high frequencies in multiple populations across the world, but the evolutionary forces responsible for the invasion of III^M are not resolved. To test if the III^M chromosome invaded because of sex-specific selection pressures, we used mRNA sequencing to determine if isogenic males that differ only in the presence of the Y^M or III^M chromosome have different gene expression profiles. We find that more genes are differentially expressed between Y^M and III^M males in testis than head, and that genes with male-biased expression are most likely to be differentially expressed between Y^M and III^M males. This suggests that male phenotypes, especially those related to male fertility, are more likely to be affected by the male-determining chromosome, supporting the hypothesis that sex-specific selection acts on alleles linked to the male-determining locus driving evolutionary turnover in the sex determination pathway. We additionally find that III^M males have a "masculinization" gene expression profile, suggesting that the III^M chromosome has accumulated an excess of male-beneficial alleles because of its male-limited transmission. Overall design: 3 replicates of testes and male heads from a Y^M and a III^M strain, and one sample of head and ovary from each of the strains
Project description:We demonstrate that PKA signalling drives zonal conversion within adult adrenocortical lineage in a sexually dimorphic manner. Our data establish that Prkar1a genetic ablation (leading to constitutive PKA activation) in the adult adrenocortical lineage leads to endocrine hyperactivity and accelerates adrenal cortex renewal. This results in increased zona fasciculata differentiation and final conversion into reticularis-like zone. This phenomenon relies partly on sex-dependent mechanisms of cortical renewal, on which the male androgenic milieu exerts a repressive action through induction of WNT signalling, which in turn antagonizes PKA signalling and cortical cell turnover. We used microarrays to analyse gene expression in response to Prkar1a gene ablation in the adult adrenocortical cell lineage in both female and male mice and explored the effects of orchidectomy (GDX). Overall design: Adrenal glands were dissected from female KO (4), female WT (4), male KO (4), male WT (4), male KO GDX (4) and male WT GDX (4)
Project description:Males of many species, ranging from humans to insects, are more susceptible than females to parasitic, fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. One mechanism which has been proposed to account for this difference is the ‘immunocompetence handicap model’ which posits that the higher infectious disease burden in males is due to testosterone (T), which drives the development of secondary male sex characteristics at the expense of suppressing immunity. However, emerging data suggest that cell-intrinsic (chromosome X and Y) sex-specific factors may also contribute to the sex differences in infectious disease burden. Using a murine model of influenza A virus (IAV) infection and a panel of chromosome Y (ChrY) consomic strains on the C57BL/6J background, we present data showing that genetic variation in ChrY influences IAV pathogenesis in males. Specific ChrY variants increase susceptibility to IAV in males and augment pathogenic immune responses in the lung, including activation of pro-inflammatory IL-17-producing γδ T cells, without affecting viral replication. Additionally, susceptibility to IAV segregates independently of copy number variation (CNV) in multicopy ChrY gene families that influence susceptibility to other immunopathologic phenotypes, including survival following infection with Coxsackievirus B3. These results demonstrate a critical role for genetic variation in ChrY in regulating susceptibility to infectious disease. Overall design: B6 mice vs B6 ChrY-PWD consomic mice, both infected with IAV, whole lung at day 7 post-infection, 5 biological replicates (mice) each
Project description:In this study, we extend array CGH technology by making the accurate detection of segmental aneusomies possible from a single lymphoblast and fibroblast following Phi29 DNA polymerase amplification Keywords: array CGH, aCGH Overall design: Array CGH experiments were performed on two segmental aneusomic cell lines derived from patients. As a proof of principle, an interstitial 4q-deletion (46, XX, del(4)(q13.1q22.3)) fibroblast cell line and an unbalanced reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 14 and X (46, XX, der (X) t(X;14)(q21.3;q23.1)) EBV cell line were used. Array CGH experiments were performed using gDNA from the two cell lines to define the exact size of each rearrangement. For the 4q-deletion cell line, the size of the deleted region was 34 Mb corresponding to 39 clones spotted on the array (from RP11-340A13 to RP11-44P19). For the EBV cell line, the size of the 14q-duplication was 47 Mb corresponding to 63 clones (from RP11-62H20 to CTC-820M16) and the Xq-deletion was 58 Mb corresponding to 70 clones (from RP3-380C13 to RP11-218L14). For each cell line, three single cells were amplified. Following DNA amplification, all cells showed the expected DNA yields. Sex-mismatch array CGH experiments were conducted on amplified DNA samples obtained from the 4q-deletion cell line. Using the chromosome specific threshold obtained from our 18 experiments, sex chromosome and autosome ploidy levels were accurately identified with no false negative and no false positive results. Averaging the 39 clones within the chromosome 4q-deleted region enabled the accurate detection of the deletions. For each of the three amplified single-cell DNA of the unbalanced reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 14 and X, male and female gDNA were used as references. Sex chromosome and autosome ploidy levels were accurately identified. Averaging intensity ratios of the 63 clones within the chromosome 14 duplicated region enabled the accurate detection of the duplications in the three replicate experiments. When, respectively, male or female gDNA were used as a reference, the average log2 mean ratio of the Xq-deleted region was –0.04 or –0.93, close to the theoretical expected value of 0 or minus 1. Interestingly, the log2 mean ratios of chromosomes 1 to 22 were highly similar when the same single cell amplified DNA was used for the two experiments using respectively female and male DNA as a reference. Hence, array CGH intensity ratio profiles were very reproducible.
Project description:The difference in X chromosome copy number creates a potential difference in X chromosomal gene expression between males and females. In many animals, dosage compensation mechanisms equalize X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet, X chromosome is also enriched for sex-biased genes due to differences in the evolutionary history of the X and autosomes. The manner in which dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression exist on the X chromosome remains an open question. Most studies compare gene expression between two sexes, which combines expression differences due to X chromosome number (dose) and sex. Here, we uncoupled the effects of sex and X dose in C. elegans and determined how each process affects expression of the X chromosome compared to autosomes. We found that in the soma, sex-biased expression on the X chromosome is almost entirely due to sex because the dosage compensation complex (DCC) effectively compensates for the X dose difference between sexes. In the germline where the DCC is not present, X chromosome copy number contributes to hermaphrodite-biased gene expression. These results suggest that X dose contributes to sex-biased gene expression based on the level of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages. Overall design: RNA-Seq profiles of C. elegans XO hermaphrodite and XX male L3 larvae and adults
Project description:Biological sex determination of human remains by means of a minimally destructive surface acid etch of tooth enamel and subsequent identification of sex chromosome linked isoforms of Amelogenin– an enamel-forming protein - by nano-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry(nanoLC-MS).