Project description:Fibrobacter is a highly cellulolytic genus commonly found in the rumen of ruminant animals and cecum of monogastric animals. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify the genes present in Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 but absent from F. intestinalis DR7. A total of 1,082 subtractive clones were picked, plasmids were purified, and inserts were sequenced, and the clones lacking homology to F. intestinalis were confirmed by Southern hybridization. By comparison of the sequences of the clones to one another and to those of the F. succinogenes genome, 802 sequences or 955 putative genes, comprising approximately 409 kb of F. succinogenes genomic DNA, were identified that lack similarity to those of F. intestinalis chromosomal DNA. The functional groups of genes, including those involved in cell envelope structure and function, energy metabolism, and transport and binding, had the largest number of genes specific to F. succinogenes. Low-stringency Southern hybridization showed that at least 37 glycoside hydrolases are shared by both species. A cluster of genes responsible for heme, porphyrin, and cobalamin biosynthesis in F. succinogenes S85 was either missing from or not functional in F. intestinalis DR7, which explains the requirement of vitamin B12 for the growth of the F. intestinalis species. Two gene clusters encoding NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunits probably shared by Fibrobacter genera appear to have an important role in energy metabolism.
Project description:Microorganisms are key components for plant biomass breakdown within rumen environments. Fibrobacter succinogenes have been identified as being active and dominant cellulolytic members of the rumen. In this study, F. succinogenes type strain S85 was adapted for steady state growth in continuous culture at pH 5.75 and confirmed to grow in the range of pH 5.60-5.65, which is lower than has been reported previously. Wild type and acid tolerant strains digested corn stover with equal efficiency in batch culture at low pH. RNA-seq analysis revealed 268 and 829 genes were differentially expressed at pH 6.10 and 5.65 compared to pH 6.70, respectively. Resequencing analysis identified seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the sufD, yidE, xylE, rlmM, mscL and dosC genes of acid tolerant strains. Due to the absence of a F. succinogenes genetic system, homologues in Escherichia coli were mutated and complemented and the resulting strains were assayed for acid survival. Complementation with wild-type or acid tolerant F. succinogenes sufD restored E. coli wild-type levels of acid tolerance, suggesting a possible role in acid homeostasis. Recent genetic engineering developments need to be adapted and applied in F. succinogenes to further our understanding of this bacterium.
Project description:Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 is an anaerobic non-cellulosome utilizing cellulolytic bacterium originally isolated from the cow rumen microbial community. Efforts to elucidate its cellulolytic machinery have resulted in the proposal of numerous models which involve cell-surface attachment via a combination of cellulose-binding fibro-slime proteins and pili, the production of cellulolytic vesicles, and the entry of cellulose fibers into the periplasmic space. Here, we used a combination of RNA-sequencing, proteomics, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to further clarify the cellulolytic mechanism of F. succinogenes. Our RNA-sequence analysis shows that genes encoding type II and III secretion systems, fibro-slime proteins, and pili are differentially expressed on cellulose, relative to glucose. A subcellular fractionation of cells grown on cellulose revealed that carbohydrate active enzymes associated with cellulose deconstruction and fibro-slime proteins were greater in the extracellular medium, as compared to the periplasm and outer membrane fractions. TEMs of samples harvested at mid-exponential and stationary phases of growth on cellulose and glucose showed the presence of grooves in the cellulose between the bacterial cells and substrate, suggesting enzymes work extracellularly for cellulose degradation. Membrane vesicles were only observed in stationary phase cultures grown on cellulose. These results provide evidence that F. succinogenes attaches to cellulose fibers using fibro-slime and pili, produces cellulases, such as endoglucanases, that are secreted extracellularly using type II and III secretion systems, and degrades the cellulose into cellodextrins that are then imported back into the periplasm for further digestion by ?-glucanases and other cellulases.
Project description:Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, isolated from the rumen of herbivores, is capable of robust lignocellulose degradation. However, the mechanism by which it achieves this is not fully elucidated. In this study, we have undertaken the most comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis, to date, of the changes in the cell envelope protein profile of F. succinogenes S85 in response to growth on cellulose. Our results indicate that the cell envelope proteome undergoes extensive rearrangements to accommodate the cellulolytic degradation machinery, as well as associated proteins involved in adhesion to cellulose and transport and metabolism of cellulolytic products. Molecular features of the lignocellulolytic enzymes suggest that the Type IX secretion system is involved in the translocation of these enzymes to the cell envelope. Finally, we demonstrate, for the first time, that cyclic-di-GMP may play a role in mediating catabolite repression, thereby facilitating the expression of proteins involved in the adhesion to lignocellulose and subsequent lignocellulose degradation and utilisation. Understanding the fundamental aspects of lignocellulose degradation in F. succinogenes will aid the development of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels.
Project description:Background:Cellulose is the most abundant biological polymer on earth, making it an attractive substrate for the production of next-generation biofuels and commodity chemicals. However, the economics of cellulose utilization are currently unfavorable due to a lack of efficient methods for its hydrolysis. Fibrobacter succinogenes strain S85, originally isolated from the bovine rumen, is among the most actively cellulolytic mesophilic bacteria known, producing succinate as its major fermentation product. In this study, we examined the transcriptome of F. succinogenes S85 grown in continuous culture at several dilution rates on cellulose, cellobiose, or glucose to gain a system-level understanding of cellulose degradation by this bacterium. Results:Several patterns of gene expression were observed for the major cellulases produced by F. succinogenes S85. A large proportion of cellulase genes were constitutively expressed, including the gene encoding for Cel51A, the major cellulose-binding endoglucanase produced by this bacterium. Moreover, other cellulase genes displayed elevated expression during growth on cellulose relative to growth on soluble sugars. Growth rate had a strong effect on global gene expression, particularly with regard to genes predicted to encode carbohydrate-binding modules and glycoside hydrolases implicated in hemicellulose degradation. Expression of hemicellulase genes was tightly regulated, with these genes displaying elevated expression only during slow growth on soluble sugars. Clear differences in gene expression were also observed between adherent and planktonic populations within continuous cultures growing on cellulose. Conclusions:This work emphasizes the complexity of the fiber-degrading system utilized by F. succinogenes S85, and reinforces the complementary role of hemicellulases for accessing cellulose by these bacteria. We report for the first time evidence of global differences in gene expression between adherent and planktonic populations of an anaerobic bacterium growing on cellulose at steady state during continuous cultivation. Finally, our results also highlight the importance of controlling for growth rate in investigations of gene expression.
Project description:Microorganisms are key components for plant biomass breakdown within rumen environments. Gram negative Fibrobacter succinogenes have been identified as being active and dominant cellulolytic members of the rumen. In this study, F. succinogenes type strain S85 was adapted for steady state growth in continuous culture at pH 5.75 and confirmed to grow in the range of pH 5.60-5.65, which is lower than has been reported previously. RNA-seq analysis revealed 268 and 829 genes were differentially expressed at pH 6.1 and 5.65 compared to pH 6.7, respectively. Resequencing analysis identified seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the sufD, yidE, xylE, rlmM, mscL and dosC genes of acid tolerant strains. Due to the absence of a F. succinogenes genetic system, homologues in Escherichia coli were mutated and complemented and the resulting strains were assayed for acid survival. Complementation with wild-type or acid tolerant F. succinogenes sufD restored the function of E. coli SufDSE, suggesting a possible role F. succinogenes sufD was involved in acid homeostasis. Recent genetic engineering developments need to be adapted and applied in F. succinogenes to further our understanding of this species. Overall design: Chia-wei,Wu
Project description:Acetyl xylan esterase (EC 126.96.36.199) is a member of a set of enzymes required to depolymerize hemicellulose, especially xylan that is composed of a main chain of beta-1,4-linked xylopyranoside residues decorated with acetyl side groups. Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 Axe6B (FSUAxe6B) is an acetyl xylan esterase encoded in the genome of this rumen bacterium. The enzyme is a modular protein comprised of an esterase domain, a carbohydrate-binding module, and a region of unknown function. Sequences that are homologous to the region of unknown function are paralogously distributed, thus far, only in F. succinogenes. Therefore, the sequences were designated Fibrobacter succinogenes-specific paralogous module 1 (FPm-1). The FPm-1s are associated with at least 24 polypeptides in the genome of F. succinogenes S85. A bioinformatics search showed that most of the FPm-1-appended polypeptides are putative carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting a potential role in carbohydrate metabolism. Truncational analysis of FSUAxe6B, together with catalytic and substrate binding studies, has allowed us to delineate the functional modules in the polypeptide. The N-terminal half of FSUAxe6B harbors the activity that cleaves side chain acetyl groups from xylan-like substrates, and the binding of insoluble xylan was determined to originate from FPm-1. Site-directed mutagenesis studies of highly conserved active-site residues in the esterase domain suggested that the esterase activity is derived from a tetrad composed of Ser(44), His(273), Glu(194), and Asp(270), with both Glu(194) and Asp(270) functioning as helper acids, instead of a single carboxylate residue proposed to initiate catalysis.
Project description:We previously characterized two endoglucanases, CelG and EGD, from the mesophilic ruminal anaerobe Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. Further comparative experiments have shown that CelG is a cold-active enzyme whose catalytic properties are superior to those of several other intensively studied cold-active enzymes. It has a lower temperature optimum, of 25 degrees C, and retains about 70% of its maximum activity at 0 degrees C, while EGD has a temperature optimum of 35 degrees C and retains only about 18% of its maximal activity at 0 degrees C. When assayed at 4 degrees C, CelG exhibits a 33-fold-higher kcat value and a 73-fold-higher physiological efficiency (kcat/Km) than EGD. CelG has a low thermal stability, as indicated by the effect of temperature on its activity and secondary structure. The presence of small amino acids around the putative catalytic residues may add to the flexibility of the enzyme, thereby increasing its activity at cold temperatures. Its activity is modulated by sodium chloride, with an increase of over 1.8-fold at an ionic strength of 0.03. Possible explanations for the presence of a cold-active enzyme in a mesophile are that cold-active enzymes are more broadly distributed than previously expected, that lateral transfer of the gene from a psychrophile occurred, or that F. succinogenes originated from the marine environment.