Project description:Pleurotus eryngii (King Oyster) is one of the most highly prized edible mushrooms. Among the diverse varieties within P. eryngii, P. eryngii var. eryngii is the commonest one, with a worldwide distribution, while P. eryngii var. ferulae is only distributed in Europe and China, and is especially adapted to the Gobi Desert in Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. However, little is known about the genome-wide pattern of evolution and adaptation to the divergent environments of P. eryngii. Here, we present the high-quality genome sequences of P. eryngii var. eryngii strain PEE81 originating from Europe and P. eryngii var. ferulae strain PEF12 originating from the Gobi Desert of China. The assembled genome sizes of PEE81 and PEF12 were 53.6 and 48.0 Mbp, respectively, which are larger than other reported genomes in the genus Pleurotus. We propose that the selective amplification of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons increases the genome size of the genus Pleurotus, and may play a key role in driving their rapid species diversification. Molecular clock analyses of five Pleurotus species, namely PEE81, PEF12, P. tuoliensis, P. ostreatus and P. cf. floridanus suggest that the divergence estimates of the genus Pleurotus over time scales ranged from ?4 to ?38 million years ago (Mya), and PEE81 and PEF12 diverged at ?13 Mya. The whole genome resequencing of 33 geographically diverse strains of P. eryngii var. eryngii and var. ferulae was then performed and the genome variation among and within these two populations were investigated. Comparative analyses of these two populations detected several candidate genes related to stress responses and DNA repair that are putatively involved in adaptation to the Gobi Desert environment. These findings offer insights into genome evolution of the genus Pleurotus and provide valuable genomic resources for King Oyster mushroom breeding.
Project description:Brown blotch disease (BBD) caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii is one of the most devastating diseases of Pleurotus spp. worldwide. Breeding for resistant strains is the most effective method for controlling BBD. To identify resistant germplasm for BBD management, 97 strains comprising 21 P. cf. floridanus, 20 P. ostreatus, and 56 P. pulmonarius were screened by two different methods; namely, inoculation of the pathogen on the mushroom pileus (IMP) and on the spawned substrate (IMSS) under controlled conditions. Out of the 97 strains screened, 22 P. pulmonarius, and four P. cf. floridanus were moderately resistant to BBD using the IMP method. Eleven P. pulmonarius, six P. cf. florida, and one P. ostreatus strains were highly resistant to BBD using the IMSS method. All of the 97 strains showed varying degrees of susceptibility using the IMP method, but eight strains were completely resistant using the IMSS method. Combining these two methods, five strains were highly resistant (four P. pulmonarius and one P. cf. floridanus) and 11 were moderately resistant (eight P. pulmonarius and three P. cf. floridanus). The resistance sources to P. tolaasii identified in P. pulmonarius and P. cf. floridanus could be used for further breeding of Pleurotus spp.
Project description:Defence mechanisms of organisms are shaped by their lifestyle, environment and pathogen pressure. Carpenter ants are social insects which live in huge colonies comprising genetically closely related individuals in high densities within nests. This lifestyle potentially facilitates the rapid spread of pathogens between individuals. In concert with their innate immune system, social insects may apply external immune defences to manipulate the microbial community among individuals and within nests. Additionally, carpenter ants carry a mutualistic intracellular and obligate endosymbiotic bacterium, possibly maintained and regulated by the innate immune system. Thus, different selective forces could shape internal immune defences of Camponotus floridanus.The immune gene repertoire of C. floridanus was investigated by re-evaluating its genome sequence combined with a full transcriptome analysis of immune challenged and control animals using Illumina sequencing. The genome was re-annotated by mapping transcriptome reads and masking repeats. A total of 978 protein sequences were characterised further by annotating functional domains, leading to a change in their original annotation regarding function and domain composition in about 8% of all proteins. Based on homology analysis with key components of major immune pathways of insects, the C. floridanus immune-related genes were compared to those of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera, and other hymenoptera. This analysis revealed that overall the immune system of carpenter ants comprises many components found in these insects. In addition, several C. floridanus specific genes of yet unknown functions but which are strongly induced after immune challenge were discovered. In contrast to solitary insects like Drosophila or the hymenopteran Nasonia vitripennis, the number of genes encoding pattern recognition receptors specific for bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and a variety of known antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes is lower in C. floridanus. The comparative analysis of gene expression post immune-challenge in different developmental stages of C. floridanus suggests a stronger induction of immune gene expression in larvae in comparison to adults.The comparison of the immune system of C. floridanus with that of other insects revealed the presence of a broad immune repertoire. However, the relatively low number of PGN recognition proteins and AMPs, the identification of Camponotus specific putative immune genes, and stage specific differences in immune gene regulation reflects Camponotus specific evolution including adaptations to its lifestyle.
Project description:In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide epigenetic and transcriptional patterns of the white-rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus throughout its life cycle. Our results performed by using high-throughput sequencing analyses revealed that strain-specific DNA methylation profiles are primarily involved in the repression of transposon activity, and suggest that 21 nt small RNAs play a key role in transposon silencing.Furthermore, we provide evidence that transposon-associated DNA methylation, but not sRNA production, is directly involved in the silencing of genes surrounded by transposons. Finally, we identified key genes activated in the fruiting process through the comparative analysis of transcriptomes. Overall design: Examination of mRNA-seq, smallRNAseq and Bisulfite-seq in six samples of Pleurotus ostreatus, using three biological replicates
Project description:The aim of the study was to obtain new compounds during biotransformation of two halocompounds, the ?-bromo and ?-iodo-?-bicyclolactones 1 and 2. Unexpectedly Pleurotus ostreatus produced together with the hydroxylactone, 2-hydroxy-4,4-dimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane-8-one (3), its own metabolite (3S,9S,15S)-(6E,12E)-3,9,15-trimethyl-4,10,16-trioxacyclohexa-deca-6,12-diene-1,5,8,11,14-pentaone (4). The method presented here, in which this macrosphelide 4 was obtained by biotransformation, has not been previously described in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, this compound has been prepared only by chemical synthesis to date. This is the first report on the possibility of the biosynthesis of this compound by the Pleurotus ostreatus strain. The conditions and factors, like temperature, salts, organic solvents, affecting the production of this macrosphelide by Pleurotus ostreatus strain were examined. The highest yield of macroshphelide production was noticed for halolactones, as well with iodide, bromide, iron and copper (2+) ions as inductors.
Project description:Bacterial symbioses are widespread among insects, probably being one of the key factors of their evolutionary success. We present the complete genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the primary endosymbiont of carpenter ants. Although these ants feed on a complex diet, this symbiosis very likely has a nutritional basis: Blochmannia is able to supply nitrogen and sulfur compounds to the host while it takes advantage of the host metabolic machinery. Remarkably, these bacteria lack all known genes involved in replication initiation (dnaA, priA, and recA). The phylogenetic analysis of a set of conserved protein-coding genes shows that Bl. floridanus is phylogenetically related to Buchnera aphidicola and Wigglesworthia glossinidia, the other endosymbiotic bacteria whose complete genomes have been sequenced so far. Comparative analysis of the five known genomes from insect endosymbiotic bacteria reveals they share only 313 genes, a number that may be close to the minimum gene set necessary to sustain endosymbiotic life.