Project description:Attine ants cultivate fungi as their most important food source and in turn the fungus is nourished, protected against harmful microorganisms, and dispersed by the ants. This symbiosis evolved approximately 50-60 million years ago in the late Paleocene or early Eocene, and since its origin attine ants have acquired a variety of fungal mutualists in the Leucocoprineae and the distantly related Pterulaceae. The most specialized symbiotic interaction is referred to as "higher agriculture" and includes leafcutter ant agriculture in which the ants cultivate the single species Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Higher agriculture fungal cultivars are characterized by specialized hyphal tip swellings, so-called gongylidia, which are considered a unique, derived morphological adaptation of higher attine fungi thought to be absent in lower attine fungi. Rare reports of gongylidia-like structures in fungus gardens of lower attines exist, but it was never tested whether these represent rare switches of lower attines to L. gonglyphorus cultivars or whether lower attine cultivars occasionally produce gongylidia. Here we describe the occurrence of gongylidia-like structures in fungus gardens of the asexual lower attine ant Mycocepurus smithii. To test whether M. smithii cultivates leafcutter ant fungi or whether lower attine cultivars produce gongylidia, we identified the M. smithii fungus utilizing molecular and morphological methods. Results shows that the gongylidia-like structures of M. smithii gardens are morphologically similar to gongylidia of higher attine fungus gardens and can only be distinguished by their slightly smaller size. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the fungal ITS sequence indicates that the gongylidia-bearing M. smithii cultivar belongs to the so-called "Clade 1"of lower Attini cultivars. Given that M. smithii is capable of cultivating a morphologically and genetically diverse array of fungal symbionts, we discuss whether asexuality of the ant host maybe correlated with low partner fidelity and active symbiont choice between fungus and ant mutualists.
Project description:Fungi in the genus <i>Escovopsis</i> (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) are prevalent associates of the complex symbiosis between fungus-growing ants (Tribe Attini), the ants' cultivated basidiomycete fungi and a consortium of both beneficial and harmful microbes found within the ants' garden communities. Some <i>Escovopsis</i> spp. have been shown to attack the ants' cultivated fungi, and co-infections by multiple <i>Escovopsis</i> spp. are common in gardens in nature. Yet, little is known about how <i>Escovopsis</i> strains impact each other. Since microbe-microbe interactions play a central role in microbial ecology and evolution, we conducted experiments to assay the types of interactions that govern <i>Escovopsis</i>-<i>Escovopsis</i> relationships. We isolated <i>Escovopsis</i> strains from the gardens of 10 attine ant genera representing basal (lower) and derived groups in the attine ant phylogeny. We conducted in vitro experiments to determine the outcome of both intraclonal and interclonal <i>Escovopsis</i> confrontations. When paired with self (intraclonal interactions), <i>Escovopsis</i> isolated from lower attine colonies exhibited antagonistic (inhibitory) responses, while strains isolated from derived attine colonies exhibited neutral or mutualistic interactions, leading to a clear phylogenetic pattern of interaction outcome. Interclonal interactions were more varied, exhibiting less phylogenetic signal. These results can serve as the basis for future studies on the costs and benefits of <i>Escovopsis</i> coinfection, and on the genetic and chemical mechanisms that regulate the compatibility and incompatibility observed here.