Project description:Most pleurodont lizard families (anoles, iguanas and their relatives), with the exception of the basilisks and casquehead lizards (family Corytophanidae), share homologous XX/XY sex chromosomes, syntenic with chicken chromosome 15. Here, we used a suite of methods (i.e. RADseq, RNAseq and qPCR) to identify corytophanid sex chromosomes for the first time. We reveal that all examined corytophanid species have partially degenerated XX/XY sex chromosomes, syntenic with chicken chromosome 17. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression of X-linked genes in the corytophanid, Basiliscus vittatus, is not balanced between the sexes, which is rather exceptional under male heterogamety, and unlike the dosage-balanced sex chromosomes in other well-studied XX/XY systems, including the green anole, Anolis carolinensis. Corytophanid sex chromosomes may represent a rare example of a turnover away from stable, differentiated sex chromosomes. However, because of poor phylogenetic resolution among pleurodont families, we cannot reject the alternative hypothesis that corytophanid sex chromosomes evolved independently from an unknown ancestral system.
Project description:A set of sex chromosomes is required for gametogenesis in both males and females, as represented by sex chromosome disorders causing agametic phenotypes. Although studies using model animals have investigated the functional requirement of sex chromosomes, involvement of these chromosomes in gametogenesis remains elusive. Here, we elicit a germ cell-intrinsic effect of sex chromosomes on oogenesis, using a novel culture system in which oocytes were induced from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) harboring XX, XO or XY. In the culture system, oogenesis using XO and XY ESCs was severely disturbed, with XY ESCs being more strongly affected. The culture system revealed multiple defects in the oogenesis of XO and XY ESCs, such as delayed meiotic entry and progression, and mispairing of the homologous chromosomes. Interestingly, Eif2s3y, a Y-linked gene that promotes proliferation of spermatogonia, had an inhibitory effect on oogenesis. This led us to the concept that male and female gametogenesis appear to be in mutual conflict at an early stage. This study provides a deeper understanding of oogenesis under a sex-reversal condition.
Project description:Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system), the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes.
Project description:Sex differences in coronary heart disease have been attributed to sex hormones, whereas the potential role of the sex chromosomes has been ignored so far. Here, we investigated the role of the sex chromosomes in causing sex differences in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.We used two unique mouse models, the 'four core genotypes' [XX mice with ovaries (XXF) or testes (XXM) and XY mice with ovaries (XYF) or testes (XYM)] and XY* (gonadal male or female mice with one or two X chromosomes). All mice were gonadectomized (GDX). In vivo or isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to I/R injury. The in vivo infarct size in XY mice was significantly smaller than XX mice regardless of their gonadal type (24.5 ± 4.1% in XYF and 21.8 ± 3.3% in XYM vs. 37.0 ± 3.2% in XXF and 35.5 ± 2.1% in XXM, P < 0.01). Consistent with the results in vivo, the infarct size was markedly smaller and cardiac functional recovery was significantly better in XY mice compared with XX ex vivo. The mitochondrial calcium retention capacity was significantly higher in XY compared with XX mice (nmol/mg protein: XXF = 126 ± 9 and XXM = 192 ± 45 vs. XYF = 250 ± 56 and XYM = 286 ± 51, P < 0.05). In XY* mice, mice with 2X chromosomes had larger infarct size (2X females = 41.4 ± 8.9% and 2X males = 46.3 ± 9.5% vs. 1X females = 23.7 ± 3.9% and 1X males = 26.6 ± 6.9%, P < 0.05) and lower heart functional recovery, compared with those with 1X chromosome. Several X genes that escape X inactivation (Eif2s3x, Kdm6a, and Kdm5c) showed higher expression in XX than in XY hearts.XX mice have higher vulnerability to I/R injury compared with XY mice, which is due to the number of X chromosomes rather than the absence of the Y chromosome.
Project description:Sexual dimorphism in body weight, fat distribution, and metabolic disease has been attributed largely to differential effects of male and female gonadal hormones. Here, we report that the number of X chromosomes within cells also contributes to these sex differences. We employed a unique mouse model, known as the "four core genotypes," to distinguish between effects of gonadal sex (testes or ovaries) and sex chromosomes (XX or XY). With this model, we produced gonadal male and female mice carrying XX or XY sex chromosome complements. Mice were gonadectomized to remove the acute effects of gonadal hormones and to uncover effects of sex chromosome complement on obesity. Mice with XX sex chromosomes (relative to XY), regardless of their type of gonad, had up to 2-fold increased adiposity and greater food intake during daylight hours, when mice are normally inactive. Mice with two X chromosomes also had accelerated weight gain on a high fat diet and developed fatty liver and elevated lipid and insulin levels. Further genetic studies with mice carrying XO and XXY chromosome complements revealed that the differences between XX and XY mice are attributable to dosage of the X chromosome, rather than effects of the Y chromosome. A subset of genes that escape X chromosome inactivation exhibited higher expression levels in adipose tissue and liver of XX compared to XY mice, and may contribute to the sex differences in obesity. Overall, our study is the first to identify sex chromosome complement, a factor distinguishing all male and female cells, as a cause of sex differences in obesity and metabolism.
Project description:The extent to which sex reversal is associated with transitions in sex determining systems (XX-XY, ZZ-ZW, etc.) or abnormal sexual differentiation is predominantly unexplored in amphibians. This is in large part because most amphibian taxa have homomorphic sex chromosomes, which has traditionally made it challenging to identify discordance between phenotypic and genetic sex in amphibians, despite all amphibians having a genetic component to sex determination. Recent advances in molecular techniques such as genome complexity reduction and high throughput sequencing present a valuable avenue for furthering our understanding of sex determination in amphibians and other taxa with homomorphic sex chromosomes like many fish and reptiles.We use DArTseq as a novel approach to identify sex-linked markers in the North American green frog (Rana clamitans melanota) using lab-reared tadpoles as well as wild-caught adults from seven ponds either in undeveloped, forested habitats or suburban ponds known to be subject to contamination by anthropogenic chemicals. The DArTseq methodology identified 13 sex-linked SNP loci and eight presence-absence loci associated with males, indicating an XX-XY system. Both alleles from a single locus show partial high sequence homology to Dmrt1, a gene linked to sex determination and differentiation throughout Metazoa. Two other loci have sequence similarities to regions of the chimpanzee and human X-chromosome as well as the chicken Z-chromosome. Several loci also show geographic variation in sex-linkage, possibly indicating sex chromosome recombination. While all loci are statistically sex-linked, they show varying degrees of female heterozygosity and male homozygosity, providing further evidence that some markers are on regions of the sex chromosomes undergoing higher rates of recombination and therefore further apart from the putative sex determining locus.The ease of the DArTseq platform provides a useful avenue for future research on sex reversal and sex chromosome evolution in vertebrates, particularly for non-model species with homomorphic or cryptic or nascent sex chromosomes.
Project description:Most autoimmune diseases are more common in women than in men. This may be caused by differences in sex hormones, sex chromosomes, or both. In this study, we determined if there was a contribution of sex chromosomes to sex differences in susceptibility to two immunologically distinct disease models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and pristane-induced lupus. Transgenic SJL mice were created to permit a comparison between XX and XY within a common gonadal type. Mice of the XX sex chromosome complement, as compared with XY, demonstrated greater susceptibility to both EAE and lupus. This is the first evidence that the XX sex chromosome complement, as compared with XY, confers greater susceptibility to autoimmune disease.
Project description:Three different models of MF1 strain mice were studied to measure the effects of gonadal secretions and sex chromosome type and number on body weight and composition, and on related metabolic variables such as glucose homeostasis, feeding, and activity. The 3 genetic models varied sex chromosome complement in different ways, as follows: 1) "four core genotypes" mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males, and XX and XY gonadal females; 2) the XY* model comprising groups similar to XO, XX, XY, and XXY; and 3) a novel model comprising 6 groups having XO, XX, and XY chromosomes with either testes or ovaries. In gonadally intact mice, gonadal males were heavier than gonadal females, but sex chromosome complement also influenced weight. The male/female difference was abolished by adult gonadectomy, after which mice with 2 sex chromosomes (XX or XY) had greater body weight and percentage of body fat than mice with 1 X chromosome. A second sex chromosome of either type, X or Y, had similar effects, indicating that the 2 sex chromosomes each possess factors that influence body weight and composition in the MF1 genetic background. Sex chromosome complement also influenced metabolic variables such as food intake and glucose tolerance. The results reveal a role for the Y chromosome in metabolism independent of testes and gonadal hormones and point to a small number of X-Y gene pairs with similar coding sequences as candidates for causing these effects.
Project description:Rumex hastatulus is the North American endemic dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. It is differentiated into two chromosomal races: Texas (T) race characterised by a simple XX/XY sex chromosome system and North Carolina (NC) race with a polymorphic XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. The gross karyotype morphology in NC race resembles the derived type, but chromosomal changes that occurred during its evolution are poorly understood. Our C-banding/DAPI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments demonstrated that Y chromosomes of both races are enriched in DAPI-positive sequences and that the emergence of polymorphic sex chromosome system was accompanied by the break of ancestral Y chromosome and switch in the localization of 5S rDNA, from autosomes to sex chromosomes (X and Y2). Two contrasting domains were detected within North Carolina Y chromosomes: the older, highly heterochromatinised, inherited from the original Y chromosome and the younger, euchromatic, representing translocated autosomal material. The flow-cytometric DNA estimation showed ?3.5 % genome downsizing in the North Carolina race. Our results are in contradiction to earlier reports on the lack of heterochromatin within Y chromosomes of this species and enable unambiguous identification of autosomes involved in the autosome-heterosome translocation, providing useful chromosome landmarks for further studies on the karyotype and sex chromosome differentiation in this species.
Project description:The genus Silene includes a plethora of dioecious and gynodioecious species. Two species, Silene latifolia (white campion) and Silene dioica (red campion), are dioecious plants, having heteromorphic sex chromosomes with an XX/XY sex determination system. The X and Y chromosomes differ mainly in size, DNA content and posttranslational histone modifications. Although it is generally assumed that the sex chromosomes evolved from a single pair of autosomes, it is difficult to distinguish the ancestral pair of chromosomes in related gynodioecious and hermaphroditic plants. We designed an oligo painting probe enriched for X-linked scaffolds from currently available genomic data and used this probe on metaphase chromosomes of S. latifolia (2n = 24, XY), S. dioica (2n = 24, XY), and two gynodioecious species, S. vulgaris (2n = 24) and S. maritima (2n = 24). The X chromosome-specific oligo probe produces a signal specifically on the X and Y chromosomes in S. latifolia and S. dioica, mainly in the subtelomeric regions. Surprisingly, in S. vulgaris and S. maritima, the probe hybridized to three pairs of autosomes labeling their p-arms. This distribution suggests that sex chromosome evolution was accompanied by extensive chromosomal rearrangements in studied dioecious plants.