Project description:Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) of Shigella dysenteriae and other pathogens are vital for the regulation of virulence-associated genes and processes. Here, we characterize RyfA1, one member of a sibling pair of sRNAs produced by S. dysenteriae. Unlike its nearly identical sibling molecule RyfA2, predicted to be encoded almost exclusively by non-pathogenic species, the presence of a gene encoding RyfA1, or a RyfA1-like molecule, is strongly correlated with virulence in a variety of enteropathogens. In S. dysenteriae, the over production of RyfA1 negatively impacts the virulence-associated process of cell-to-cell spread and the expression of ompC, a gene encoding a major outer membrane protein important for the pathogenesis of Shigella. Interestingly, the production of RyfA1 is controlled by a second sRNA, here termed RyfB1; the first incidence of one regulatory small RNA controlling another in S. dysenteriae or any Shigella species. Overall design: Two RNAseq data sets in total. Each sample was generated by pooling three independent biological replicate RNA preps
Project description:The evolutionary relationships of 46 Shigella strains representing each of the serotypes belonging to the four traditional Shigella species (subgroups), Dysenteriae, Flexneri, Boydii, and Sonnei, were determined by sequencing of eight housekeeping genes in four regions of the chromosome. Analysis revealed a very similar evolutionary pattern for each region. Three clusters of strains were identified, each including strains from different subgroups. Cluster 1 contains the majority of Boydii and Dysenteriae strains (B1-4, B6, B8, B10, B14, and B18; and D3-7, D9, and D11-13) plus Flexneri 6 and 6A. Cluster 2 contains seven Boydii strains (B5, B7, B9, B11, B15, B16, and B17) and Dysenteriae 2. Cluster 3 contains one Boydii strain (B12) and the Flexneri serotypes 1-5 strains. Sonnei and three Dysenteriae strains (D1, D8, and D10) are outside of the three main clusters but, nonetheless, are clearly within Escherichia coli. Boydii 13 was found to be distantly related to E. coli. Shigella strains, like the other pathogenic forms of E. coli, do not have a single evolutionary origin, indicating convergent evolution of Shigella phenotypic properties. We estimate the three main Shigella clusters to have evolved within the last 35,000 to 270,000 years, suggesting that shigellosis was one of the early infectious diseases of humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Shigellosis is an acute form of gastroenteritis caused by the bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella. It is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Shigella belongs to the family Enterobactericeae, which is a Gram-negative and rod shaped bacterium. In the present study, we report the draft genome of Shigella dysenteriae strain SD1D, which was isolated from the stool sample of a healthy individual. RESULTS:Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, the strain SD1D was identified as Shigella dysenteriae. The draft genome of SD1D consisted of 45, 93, 159 bp with a G?+?C content of 50.7%, 4, 960 predicted CDSs, 75 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The final assembly contained 146 contigs of total length 45, 93, 159 bp with N50 contig length of 77, 053 bp; the largest contig assembled measured 3, 85, 550 bp. CONCLUSIONS:We have for the first time performed the whole genome sequencing of Shigella dysenteriae strain SD1D. The comparative genomic analysis revealed several genes responsible for the pathogenesis, virulence, defense, resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, multidrug resistance efflux pumps and other genomic features of the bacterium.
Project description:Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) of Shigella dysenteriae and other pathogens are vital for the regulation of virulence-associated genes and processes. Here, we characterize RyfA1, one member of a sibling pair of sRNAs produced by S. dysenteriae. Unlike its nearly identical sibling molecule, RyfA2, predicted to be encoded almost exclusively by non-pathogenic species, the presence of a gene encoding RyfA1, or a RyfA1-like molecule, is strongly correlated with virulence in a variety of enteropathogens. In S. dysenteriae, the overproduction of RyfA1 negatively impacts the virulence-associated process of cell-to-cell spread as well as the expression of ompC, a gene encoding a major outer membrane protein important for the pathogenesis of Shigella. Interestingly, the production of RyfA1 is controlled by a second sRNA, here termed RyfB1, the first incidence of one regulatory small RNA controlling another in S. dysenteriae or any Shigella species.
Project description:Shigella infections account for a considerable burden of acute diarrheal diseases worldwide and remain a major cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. Although, all four species of Shigella (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery, historically only S. dysenteriae type 1 has been recognized as carrying the genes for Shiga toxin (stx). Recent epidemiological data, however, have suggested that the emergence of stx carrying S. flexneri strains may have originated from bacteriophage-mediated inter-species horizontal gene transfer in one specific geographical area, Hispaniola. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed whole genome sequences of stx-encoding phages carried by S. flexneri strains isolated in Haiti and S. flexneri S. boydii and S. dysenteriae strains isolated from international travelers who likely acquired the infection in Haiti or the Dominican Republic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that phage sequences encoded in the Shigella strains from Hispaniola were bacteriophage ?POC-J13 and they were all closely related to a phage isolated from a USA isolate, E. coli 2009C-3133 serotype O119:H4. In addition, despite the low genetic heterogeneity of phages from different Shigella spp. circulating in the Caribbean island between 2001 and 2014, two distinct clusters emerged in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Each cluster possibly originated from phages isolated from S. flexneri 2a, and within each cluster several instances of horizontal phage transfer from S. flexneri 2a to other species were detected. The implications of the emergence of stx-producing non-S. dysenteriae type 1 Shigella species, such as S. flexneri, spans not only the basic science behind horizontal phage spread, but also extends to medical treatment of patients infected with this pathogen.
Project description:Shigella species are specialised lineages of Escherichia coli that have converged to become human-adapted and cause dysentery by invading human gut epithelial cells. Most studies of Shigella evolution have been restricted to comparisons of single representatives of each species; and population genomic studies of individual Shigella species have focused on genomic variation caused by single nucleotide variants and ignored the contribution of insertion sequences (IS) which are highly prevalent in Shigella genomes. Here, we investigate the distribution and evolutionary dynamics of IS within populations of Shigella dysenteriae Sd1, Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri. We find that five IS (IS1, IS2, IS4, IS600 and IS911) have undergone expansion in all Shigella species, creating substantial strain-to-strain variation within each population and contributing to convergent patterns of functional gene loss within and between species. We find that IS expansion and genome degradation are most advanced in S. dysenteriae and least advanced in S. sonnei; and using genome-scale models of metabolism we show that Shigella species display convergent loss of core E. coli metabolic capabilities, with S. sonnei and S. flexneri following a similar trajectory of metabolic streamlining to that of S. dysenteriae. This study highlights the importance of IS to the evolution of Shigella and provides a framework for the investigation of IS dynamics and metabolic reduction in other bacterial species.
Project description:The use of PCR to amplify a specific virA gene fragment serves as a highly specific and sensitive method to detect virulent bacteria of the genus Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Amplification of a 215-bp DNA band was obtained by using isolated genomic DNA of Shigella, individual cells of Shigella dysenteriae, and mayonnaise contaminated with S. dysenteriae. Moreover, a multiplex PCR with specific (virA) and bacterium-restricted (16S ribosomal DNA) primers generated an amplification product of approximately 755 bp for all bacteria tested and an additional 215-bp product for Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli.
Project description:Introduction of the rol genes of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Escherichia coli K-12 into Shigella flexneri carrier strains expressing the heterologous S. dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide resulted in the formation of longer chains of S. dysenteriae 1 O antigen. In bacteria producing both homologous and heterologous O antigen, this resulted in a reduction of the masking of heterologous O antigen by homologous lipopolysaccharide and an increased immune response induced by intraperitoneal immunization of mice by recombinant bacteria. The rol genes of S. dysenteriae 1 and E. coli K-12 were sequenced, and their gene products were compared with the S. flexneri Rol protein. The primary sequence of S. flexneri Rol differs from both E. coli K-12 and S. dysenteriae 1 Rol proteins only at positions 267 and 270, which suggests that this region may be responsible for the difference in biological activities.
Project description:Little is known about the role of gut microbiota in response to live oral vaccines against enteric pathogens. We examined the effect of immunization with an oral live-attenuated Shigella dysenteriae 1 vaccine and challenge with wild-type S. dysenteriae 1 on the fecal microbiota of cynomolgus macaques using 16 S rRNA analysis of fecal samples. Multi-dimensional cluster analysis identified different bacterial community types within macaques from geographically distinct locations. The fecal microbiota of Mauritian macaques, observed to be genetically distinct, harbored a high-diversity community and responded differently to Shigella immunization, as well as challenge compared to the microbiota in non-Mauritian macaques. While both macaque populations exhibited anti-Shigella antibody responses, clinical shigellosis was observed only among non-Mauritian macaques. These studies highlight the importance of further investigation into the possible protective role of the microbiota against enteric pathogens and consideration of host genetic backgrounds in conducting vaccine studies.
Project description:To determine the clinical manifestations and outcome of shigellosis among children infected with different species of Shigella.We identified all patients <15 years infected with Shigella admitted to the icddr, b Dhaka hospital during one year. Study staff reviewed admission records and repeated the physical examinations and history of patients daily.Of 792 children with shigellosis 63% were infected with S. flexneri, 20% with S. dysenteriae type 1, 10% with S. boydii, 4% with S. sonnei, and 3% with S. dysenteriae types 2-10. Children infected with S. dysenteriae type 1, when compared to children infected with other species, were significantly (P<0.05) more likely to have severe gastrointestinal manifestations: grossly bloody stools (78% vs. 33%), more stools in the 24 h before admission (median 25 vs. 11), and rectal prolapse (52% vs. 15%)--and extra-intestinal manifestations--leukemoid reaction (22% vs. 2%), hemolytic-uremic syndrome (8% vs. 1%), severe hyponatremia (58% vs. 26%) and neurologic abnormalities (24% vs. 16%). The overall fatality rate was 10% and did not differ significantly by species. In a multiple regression analysis young age, malnutrition, hyponatremia, lesser stool frequency, documented seizure, and unconsciousness were predictive of death.Both severe intestinal disease and extra-intestinal manifestations of shigellosis occur with infection by any of the four species of Shigella, but are most common with S. dysenteriae type 1. Among these inpatient children, the risk of death was high with infection of any of the four Shigella species.