Project description:During evolution, various processes such as duplication, divergence, recombination, and many other events leads to the evolution of new genes with novel functions. These evolutionary events, thus significantly impact the evolution of cellular, physiological, morphological, and other phenotypic trait of organisms. While evolving, eukaryotes have acquired large number of genes from the earlier prokaryotes. This work is focused upon identification of old "prokaryotic" proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genome, further highlighting their possible role(s) in the two genomes. Our results suggest that with respect to their genome size, the fraction of old "prokaryotic" proteins is higher in Arabidopsis than in Oryza sativa. The large fractions of such proteins encoding genes were found to be localized in various endo-symbiotic organelles. The domain architecture of the old "prokaryotic" proteins revealed similar distribution in both Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genomes showing their conserved evolution. In Oryza sativa, the old "prokaryotic" proteins were more involved in developmental processes, might be due to constant man-made selection pressure for better agronomic traits/productivity. While in Arabidopsis, these proteins were involved in metabolic functions. Overall, the analysis indicates the distinct pattern of evolution of old "prokaryotic" proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.
Project description:Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.
Project description:Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient that is frequently inaccessible to plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants employ the Combined Strategy for Fe uptake, which is composed by all features of Strategy II, common to all Poaceae species, and some features of Strategy I, common to non-Poaceae species. To understand the evolution of Fe uptake mechanisms, we analyzed the root transcriptomic response to Fe deficiency in O. sativa and its wild progenitor O. rufipogon. We identified 622 and 2,017 differentially expressed genes in O. sativa and O. rufipogon, respectively. Among the genes up-regulated in both species, we found Fe transporters associated with Strategy I, such as IRT1, IRT2 and NRAMP1; and genes associated with Strategy II, such as YSL15 and IRO2. In order to evaluate the conservation of these Strategies among other Poaceae, we identified the orthologs of these genes in nine species from the Oryza genus, maize and sorghum, and evaluated their expression profile in response to low Fe condition. Our results indicate that the Combined Strategy is not specific to O. sativa as previously proposed, but also present in species of the Oryza genus closely related to domesticated rice, and originated around the same time the AA genome lineage within Oryza diversified. Therefore, adaptation to Fe2+ acquisition via IRT1 in flooded soils precedes O. sativa domestication.
Project description:Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical maps embedding a large number of BAC end sequences (BESs) were generated for Oryza sativa ssp. indica varieties Minghui 63 (MH63) and Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and were compared with the genome sequences of O. sativa spp. japonica cv. Nipponbare and O. sativa ssp. indica cv. 93-11. The comparisons exhibited substantial diversities in terms of large structural variations and small substitutions and indels. Genome-wide BAC-sized and contig-sized structural variations were detected, and the shared variations were analyzed. In the expansion regions of the Nipponbare reference sequence, in comparison to the MH63 and ZS97 physical maps, as well as to the previously constructed 93-11 physical map, the amounts and types of the repeat contents, and the outputs of gene ontology analysis, were significantly different from those of the whole genome. Using the physical maps of four wild Oryza species from OMAP (http://www.omap.org) as a control, we detected many conserved and divergent regions related to the evolution process of O. sativa. Between the BESs of MH63 and ZS97 and the two reference sequences, a total of 1532 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 71,383 SNPs, 1767 multiple nucleotide polymorphisms, 6340 insertions, and 9137 deletions were identified. This study provides independent whole-genome resources for intra- and intersubspecies comparisons and functional genomics studies in O. sativa. Both the comparative physical maps and the GBrowse, which integrated the QTL and molecular markers from GRAMENE (http://www.gramene.org) with our physical maps and analysis results, are open to the public through our Web site (http://gresource.hzau.edu.cn/resource/resource.html).
Project description:Despite its status as one of the world's major crops, linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns have not been systematically characterized across the genome of Asian rice (Oryza sativa). Such information is critical to fully exploit the genome sequence for mapping complex traits using association techniques. Here we characterize LD in five 500-kb regions of the rice genome in three major cultivated rice varieties (indica, tropical japonica, and temperate japonica) and in the wild ancestor of Asian rice, Oryza rufipogon. Using unlinked SNPs to determine the amount of background linkage disequilibrium in each population, we find that the extent of LD is greatest in temperate japonica (probably >500 kb), followed by tropical japonica (approximately 150 kb) and indica (approximately 75 kb). LD extends over a shorter distance in O. rufipogon (<<40 kb) than in any of the O. sativa groups assayed here. The differences in the extent of LD among these groups are consistent with differences in outcrossing and recombination rate estimates. As well as heterogeneity between groups, our results suggest variation in LD patterns among genomic regions. We demonstrate the feasibility of genomewide association mapping in cultivated Asian rice using a modest number of SNPs.
Project description:A long awn is one of the distinct morphological features of wild rice species. This organ is thought to aid in seed dispersal and prevent predation by animals. Most cultivated varieties of Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, however, have lost the ability to form long awns. The causal genetic factors responsible for the loss of awn in these two rice species remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated three sets of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) in a common O. sativa genetic background (cv. Koshihikari) that harbor genomic fragments from Oryza nivara, Oryza rufipogon, and Oryza glaberrima donors. Phenotypic analyses of these libraries revealed the existence of three genes, Regulator of Awn Elongation 1 (RAE1), RAE2, and RAE3, involved in the loss of long awns in cultivated rice. Donor segments at two of these genes, RAE1 and RAE2, induced long awn formation in the CSSLs whereas an O. sativa segment at RAE3 induced long awn formation in O. glaberrima. These results suggest that the two cultivated rice species, O. sativa and O. glaberrima, have taken independent paths to become awnless.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a major fraction of the genomes of higher plants. For example, retrotransposons comprise more than 50% of the maize genome and more than 90% of the wheat genome. LTR retrotransposons are believed to have contributed significantly to the evolution of genome structure and function. The genome sequencing of selected experimental and agriculturally important species is providing an unprecedented opportunity to view the patterns of variation existing among the entire complement of retrotransposons in complete genomes. RESULTS:Using a new data-mining program, LTR_STRUC, (LTR retrotransposon structure program), we have mined the GenBank rice (Oryza sativa) database as well as the more extensive (259 Mb) Monsanto rice dataset for LTR retrotransposons. Almost two-thirds (37) of the 59 families identified consist of copia-like elements, but gypsy-like elements outnumber copia-like elements by a ratio of approximately 2:1. At least 17% of the rice genome consists of LTR retrotransposons. In addition to the ubiquitous gypsy- and copia-like classes of LTR retrotransposons, the rice genome contains at least two novel families of unusually small, non-coding (non-autonomous) LTR retrotransposons. CONCLUSIONS:Each of the major clades of rice LTR retrotransposons is more closely related to elements present in other species than to the other clades of rice elements, suggesting that horizontal transfer may have occurred over the evolutionary history of rice LTR retrotransposons. Like LTR retrotransposons in other species with relatively small genomes, many rice LTR retrotransposons are relatively young, indicating a high rate of turnover.
Project description:Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3), a member of the Auxin-responsive gene family, is involved in plant growth, the plant developmental process, and various stress responses. The GH3 gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. However, the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species remains unknown and the function of the GH3 gene family in Oryza sativa is not well-documented. Here, a systematic analysis was performed in six Oryza species/subspecies, including four wild rice species and two cultivated rice subspecies. A total of 13, 13, 13, 13, 12, and 12 members were identified in O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica, Oryza rufipogon, Oryza nivara, Oryza punctata, and Oryza glumaepatula, respectively. Gene duplication events, structural features, conserved motifs, a phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, and Ka/Ks ratios of this important family were found to be strictly conservative across these six Oryza species/subspecies, suggesting that the expansion of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species might be attributed to duplication events, and this expansion could occur in the common ancestor of Oryza species, even in common ancestor of rice tribe (Oryzeae) (23.07~31.01 Mya). The RNA-seq results of different tissues displayed that OsGH3 genes had significantly different expression profiles. Remarkably, the qRT-PCR result after NaCl treatment indicated that the majority of OsGH3 genes play important roles in salinity stress, especially OsGH3-2 and OsGH3-8. This study provides important insights into the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species and will assist with further investigation of OsGH3 genes' functions under salinity stress.
Project description:In Oryza sativa, indica and japonica are pivotal subpopulations, and other subpopulations such as aus and aromatic are considered to be derived from indica or japonica. In this regard, Oryza sativa accessions are frequently viewed from the indica/japonica perspective. This study introduces a computational method for indica/japonica classification by applying phenotypic variables to the logistic regression model (LRM). The population used in this study included 413 Oryza sativa accessions, of which 280 accessions were indica or japonica. Out of 24 phenotypic variables, a set of seven phenotypic variables was identified to collectively generate the fully accurate indica/japonica separation power of the LRM. The resulting parameters were used to define the customized LRM. Given the 280 indica/japonica accessions, the classification accuracy of the customized LRM along with the set of seven phenotypic variables was estimated by 100 iterations of ten-fold cross-validations. As a result, the classification accuracy of 100% was achieved. This suggests that the LRM can be an effective tool to analyze the indica/japonica classification with phenotypic variables in Oryza sativa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Developing chilling tolerant accessions of domesticated Asian rice is a potential source of significant crop improvement. The uniquely chilling sensitive nature of the tropically originating Oryza sativa make it the most important cereal crop that can gain significantly from improved tolerance to low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this complex trait are not fully understood. Oryza sativa has two subspecies with different levels of chilling tolerance, JAPONICA and INDICA, providing an ideal tool to investigate mechanistic differences in the chilling stress tolerance responses within this important crop species. RESULTS:The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) was used to investigate a core set of Oryza sativa accessions. The tools available for this panel allowed for a comprehensive analysis of two chilling tolerance traits at multiple temperatures across a 354-cultivar subset of the RDP1. Chilling tolerance trait values were distributed as mostly subpopulation specific clusters of Tolerant, Intermediate, and Sensitive accessions. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) mapping approaches using all 354 accessions yielded a total of 245 quantitative trait loci (QTL), containing 178 unique QTL covering 25% of the rice genome, while 40 QTL were identified by multiple traits. QTL mappings using subsets of rice accession clusters yielded another 255 QTL, for a total of 500 QTL. The genes within these multiple trait QTL were analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO) term and potential pathway enrichments. Terms related to "carbohydrate biosynthesis", "carbohydrate transmembrane transport", "small molecule protein modification", and "plasma membrane" were enriched from this list. Filtering was done to identify more likely candidate pathways involved in conferring chilling tolerance, resulting in enrichment of terms related to "Golgi apparatus", "stress response", "transmembrane transport", and "signal transduction". CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, these GO term clusters revealed a likely involvement of Golgi-mediated subcellular and extracellular vesicle and intracellular carbohydrate transport as a general cold stress tolerance response mechanism to achieve cell and metabolic homeostasis under chilling stress.