Project description:The black-bone chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed of chicken that is commonly found in Thailand. This breed is known for having a number of black colored organs. Consumers have been notably attracted to the black-bone chicken breed for the characteristic darkness that is observed in many of its organs. However, the degree of darkness in all organs of the black-bone chicken is still in question. Importantly, there have not yet been any published reports on the distribution of melanin pigment in the organs of the black-bone chicken. This research study aims to examine the distribution of the melanin pigment in 33 organs of the Thai black-bone chicken. Ten black-bone chickens (five male, five female) were included in this study. Thirty-two organs including the brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, larynx, trachea, syrinx, lungs, heart, pericardium, aorta, brachial vein, kidney, cloaca, oviduct, testis, gastrocnemius muscle, femur, tongue, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, omentum, abdominal fat, spleen, and skin were examined in this study. Histological sections taken from tissue samples of each of these organs were studied. The findings revealed that the presence of the melanin pigment was not significantly different (p > 0.005) between male and female specimens. Notably, the liver was the only organ in which the melanin pigment had not accumulated. Consequently, there was not a uniform pattern of melanin pigment accumulation throughout the organs of the chickens. The melanin pigment was present in all of the tissue layers of most organs, while the melanin pigment was found in only specific layers of some of the organs. In conclusion, the distribution of melanin pigmentation in the organs of each of the animals in this study was found to be different. However, in some tissue samples, such as those obtained from the liver, no accumulation of the melanin pigment was observed.
Project description:In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Emei black chicken (<i>Gallus gallus</i>) was obtained by using next generation sequencing method. The complete mitogenome sequence is 16,784 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region. This work provides a valuable genetic resource of data for the <i>Gallus gallus</i> evolution study and contributes to the breeding improvement program of native chicken breeds.
Project description:Xiaoxiang chicken (<i>Gallus gallus domesticus</i>) is one of the native breeds in the Southeastern of Guizhou province, China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Xiaoxiang chicken (small-sized breed chicken) was obtained for the first time. The mitogenome is 16,784 bp in length, and it contained a D-loop region, two rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 22 tRNA genes. A neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree was structured based on the D-loop, which indicated that the Red junglefowl was the direct ancestor of Xiaoxiang chicken, and both were closed to the Silky chicken and Dongan black chicken.
Project description:Black-bone chickens (<i>Gallus gallus domesticus</i>) have become economically valuable, particularly in Southeast Asia as a consequence of popular traditional Chinese medical practices. Chickens with whole body organ darkness are considered to have higher value and are, therefore, more often requested. This research study aimed to investigate the darkness in 34 skeletal muscles of 10 Thai black-bone chickens (five males and five females). The evaluation of muscle darkness was done on two levels: (i) a color chart was employed at the macroanatomical level and (ii) by using melanin pigment to evaluate the structure at the microanatomy level. The results revealed that the accumulation of melanin pigment in the muscle tissue was observed in the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium. With respect to the results of the color chart test, iliotibialis lateralis pars preacetabularis, gastrocnemius, fibularis longus and puboischiofemoralis pars medialis showed the highest degree of darkness, while serratus profundus, pectoralis, iliotibialis cranialis, flexor cruris lateralis, and flexor cruris medialis appeared to be the least dark. In addition, we found that the highest and lowest amounts of melanin pigment was noted in the flexor carpi ulnaris and pectoralis (<i>p</i> < 0.05), respectively; however, there was no significant difference (<i>p</i> > 0.05) observed between the sexes. These results reveal that the 34 specified muscles of black-bone chickens showed uneven distribution of darkness due to the differing accumulations of melanin pigments of each muscle.This information may provide background knowledge for a better understanding of melanin accumulation and lead to breeding improvements in Thai black-bone chickens.
Project description:Expression of known and predicted genes in tissues of Gallus gallus (chicken) pooled from multiple healthy individuals. Two-colour experiments with two different tissues hybridized to each array. Each tissue is arrayed in replicate with dye swaps. Tissues: Bursa of Fabricius, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Eye, Femur with bone marrow, Gallbladder, Gizzard, Heart, Intestine, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Muscle, Ovary, Oviduct, Skin, Spleen, Stomach, Testis, Thymus
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Domesticated chickens have a wide variety of phenotypes, in contrast with their wild progenitors. Unlike other chicken breeds, Xichuan black-bone chickens have blue-shelled eggs, and black meat, beaks, skin, bones, and legs. The breeding history and the economically important traits of this breed have not yet been explored at the genomic level. We therefore used whole genome resequencing to analyze the breeding history of the Xichuan black-bone chickens and to identify genes responsible for its unique phenotype.<h4>Results</h4>Principal component and population structure analysis showed that Xichuan black-bone chicken is in a distinct clade apart from eight other breeds. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed that the selection intensity of Xichuan black-bone chickens is higher than for other chicken breeds. The estimated time of divergence between the Xichuan black-bone chickens and other breeds is 2.89 ka years ago. Fst analysis identified a selective sweep that contains genes related to melanogenesis. This region is probably associated with the black skin of the Xichuan black-bone chickens and may be the product of long-term artificial selection. A combined analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data suggests that the candidate gene related to the black-bone trait, EDN3, might interact with the upstream ncRNA LOC101747896 to generate black skin color during melanogenesis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings help explain the unique genetic and phenotypic characteristics of Xichuan black-bone chickens, and provide basic research data for studying melanin deposition in animals.
Project description:In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Hetian chicken (Gallus gallus) was obtained by using next generation sequencing method. The total length of complete mitogenome sequence is 16,784 bp, containing one control region, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. This work provides a valuable source of data for the study of the evolution of Gallus gallus mitochondrial genome and contributes to Hetian chicken breeding improvement program.