Project description:In recent years, thousands of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes have been sequenced to varying degrees of completion. The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has long been the keeper of the original eukaryotic reference genome sequence, which was derived primarily from S. cerevisiae strain S288C. Because new technologies are pushing S. cerevisiae annotation past the limits of any system based exclusively on a single reference sequence, SGD is actively working to expand the original S. cerevisiae systematic reference sequence from a single genome to a multi-genome reference panel. We first commissioned the sequencing of additional genomes and their automated analysis using the AGAPE pipeline. Here we describe our curation strategy to produce manually reviewed high-quality genome annotations in order to elevate 11 of these additional genomes to Reference status. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/.
Project description:The genome of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first completely sequenced from a eukaryote. It was released in 1996 as the work of a worldwide effort of hundreds of researchers. In the time since, the yeast genome has been intensively studied by geneticists, molecular biologists, and computational scientists all over the world. Maintenance and annotation of the genome sequence have long been provided by the Saccharomyces Genome Database, one of the original model organism databases. To deepen our understanding of the eukaryotic genome, the S. cerevisiae strain S288C reference genome sequence was updated recently in its first major update since 1996. The new version, called "S288C 2010," was determined from a single yeast colony using modern sequencing technologies and serves as the anchor for further innovations in yeast genomic science.
Project description:To obtain a better understanding of the genome-wide distribution and the nature of large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we hybridized genomic DNA of 88 haploid or homozygous diploid S. cerevisiae strains of diverse geographic origins and source substrates onto high-density tiling arrays. On the basis of loss of hybridization, we identified 384 LSPs larger than 500 bp that were located in 188 non-overlapping regions of the genome. Validation by polymerase chain reaction-amplification and/or DNA sequencing revealed that 39 LSPs were due to deletions, whereas 74 LSPs involved sequences diverged far enough from the S288c reference genome sequence as to prevent hybridization to the microarray features. The LSP locations were biased toward the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes, where high genetic variation in genes involved in transport or fermentation is thought to facilitate rapid adaptation of S. cerevisiae to new environments. The diverged LSP sequences appear to have different allelic ancestries and were in many cases identified as Saccharomyces paradoxus introgressions.
Project description:Recently, a new type of hybrid resulting from the hybridization between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii was described. These strains exhibit physiological properties of potential biotechnological interest. A preliminary characterization of these hybrids showed a trend to reduce the S. kudriavzevii fraction of the hybrid genome. We characterized the genomic constitution of several wine S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii strains by using a combined approach based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of gene regions, comparative genome hybridizations with S. cerevisiae DNA arrays, ploidy analysis, and gene dose determination by quantitative real-time PCR. The high similarity in the genome structures of the S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids under study indicates that they originated from a single hybridization event. After hybridization, the hybrid genome underwent extensive chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosome losses and the generation of chimeric chromosomes by the nonreciprocal recombination between homeologous chromosomes. These nonreciprocal recombinations between homeologous chromosomes occurred in highly conserved regions, such as Ty long terminal repeats (LTRs), rRNA regions, and conserved protein-coding genes. This study supports the hypothesis that chimeric chromosomes may have been generated by a mechanism similar to the recombination-mediated chromosome loss acting during meiosis in Saccharomyces hybrids. As a result of the selective processes acting during fermentation, hybrid genomes maintained the S. cerevisiae genome but reduced the S. kudriavzevii fraction.
Project description:Ten years have passed since the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-more precisely, the S288c strain-was completely sequenced. However, experimental work in yeast is commonly performed using strains that are of unknown genetic relationship to S288c. Here, we characterized the nucleotide-level similarity between S288c and seven commonly used lab strains (A364A, W303, FL100, CEN.PK, summation 1278b, SK1 and BY4716) using 25mer oligonucleotide microarrays that provide complete and redundant coverage of the approximately 12 Mb Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Using these data, we assessed the frequency and distribution of nucleotide variation in comparison to the sequenced reference genome. These data allow us to infer the relationships between experimentally important strains of yeast and provide insight for experimental designs that are sensitive to sequence variation. We propose a rational approach for near complete sequencing of strains related to the reference using these data and directed re-sequencing. These data and new visualization tools are accessible online in a new resource: the Yeast SNPs Browser (YSB; http://gbrowse.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/gbrowse/yeast_strains_snps) that is available to all researchers.
Project description:An unknown interspecies Saccharomyces hybrid, "Muri," was recently isolated from a "kveik" culture, a traditional Norwegian farmhouse brewing yeast culture (Preiss et al., 2018). Here we used whole genome sequencing to reveal the strain as an allodiploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces uvarum hybrid. Phylogenetic analysis of its sub-genomes revealed that the S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum parent strains of Muri appear to be most closely related to English ale and Central European cider and wine strains, respectively. We then performed phenotypic analysis on a number of brewing-relevant traits in a range of S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum and hybrid strains closely related to the Muri hybrid. The Muri strain possesses a range of industrially desirable phenotypic properties, including broad temperature tolerance, good ethanol tolerance, and efficient carbohydrate use, therefore making it an interesting candidate for not only brewing applications, but potentially various other industrial fermentations, such as biofuel production and distilling. We identified the two S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum strains that were genetically and phenotypically most similar to the Muri hybrid, and then attempted to reconstruct the Muri hybrid by generating de novo interspecific hybrids between these two strains. The de novo hybrids were compared with the original Muri hybrid, and many appeared phenotypically more similar to Muri than either of the parent strains. This study introduces a novel approach to studying hybrid strains and strain development by combining genomic and phenotypic analysis to identify closely related parent strains for construction of de novo hybrids.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults (J. N. Aucott, J. Fayan, H. Grossnicklas, A. Morrissey, M. M. Lederman, and R. A. Salata, Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:406-411, 1990). We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiae fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.
Project description:The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.
Project description:Rigorous study of mitochondrial functions and cell biology in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has advanced our understanding of mitochondrial genetics. This yeast is now a powerful model for population genetics, owing to large genetic diversity and highly structured populations among wild isolates. Comparative mitochondrial genomic analyses between yeast species have revealed broad evolutionary changes in genome organization and architecture. A fine-scale view of recent evolutionary changes within S. cerevisiae has not been possible due to low numbers of complete mitochondrial sequences.To address challenges of sequencing AT-rich and repetitive mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs), we sequenced two divergent S. cerevisiae mtDNAs using a single-molecule sequencing platform (PacBio RS). Using de novo assemblies, we generated highly accurate complete mtDNA sequences. These mtDNA sequences were compared with 98 additional mtDNA sequences gathered from various published collections. Phylogenies based on mitochondrial coding sequences and intron profiles revealed that intraspecific diversity in mitochondrial genomes generally recapitulated the population structure of nuclear genomes. Analysis of intergenic sequence indicated a recent expansion of mobile elements in certain populations. Additionally, our analyses revealed that certain populations lacked introns previously believed conserved throughout the species, as well as the presence of introns never before reported in S. cerevisiae.Our results revealed that the extensive variation in S. cerevisiae mtDNAs is often population specific, thus offering a window into the recent evolutionary processes shaping these genomes. In addition, we offer an effective strategy for sequencing these challenging AT-rich mitochondrial genomes for small scale projects.
Project description:We present the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PeptideAtlas composed from 47 diverse experiments and 4.9 million tandem mass spectra. The observed peptides align to 61% of Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) open reading frames (ORFs), 49% of the uncharacterized SGD ORFs, 54% of S. cerevisiae ORFs with a Gene Ontology annotation of 'molecular function unknown', and 76% of ORFs with Gene names. We highlight the use of this resource for data mining, construction of high quality lists for targeted proteomics, validation of proteins, and software development.