Project description:Bone consists of separate inner endosteal and outer periosteal compartments, each with distinct contributions to bone physiology and each maintaining separate pools of cells owing to physical separation by the bone cortex. The skeletal stem cell that gives rise to endosteal osteoblasts has been extensively studied; however, the identity of periosteal stem cells remains unclear1-5. Here we identify a periosteal stem cell (PSC) that is present in the long bones and calvarium of mice, displays clonal multipotency and self-renewal, and sits at the apex of a differentiation hierarchy. Single-cell and bulk transcriptional profiling show that PSCs display transcriptional signatures that are distinct from those of other skeletal stem cells and mature mesenchymal cells. Whereas other skeletal stem cells form bone via an initial cartilage template using the endochondral pathway4, PSCs form bone via a direct intramembranous route, providing a cellular basis for the divergence between intramembranous versus endochondral developmental pathways. However, there is plasticity in this division, as PSCs acquire endochondral bone formation capacity in response to injury. Genetic blockade of the ability of PSCs to give rise to bone-forming osteoblasts results in selective impairments in cortical bone architecture and defects in fracture healing. A cell analogous to mouse PSCs is present in the human periosteum, raising the possibility that PSCs are attractive targets for drug and cellular therapy for skeletal disorders. The identification of PSCs provides evidence that bone contains multiple pools of stem cells, each with distinct physiologic functions.
Project description:Insufficient and delayed fracture healing remain significant public health problems with limited therapeutic options. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a major pathway involved in regulation of fracture healing, promotes proliferation, migration, and differentiation of osteoprogenitors. We have recently reported that knock-in mice with a global increase in PI3K signaling (gCblYF) show enhanced femoral fracture healing characterized by an extraordinary periosteal response to injury. Interestingly, of all growth factor receptors involved in fracture healing, PI3K directly binds only to PDGFR. Given these findings, we hypothesized a PDGFR-PI3K interaction is necessary for mediating robust periosteal cell activation following fracture. In this study, we isolated primary periosteal cells from gCblYF mice to analyze cross-talk between the PDGFR? and PI3K signaling pathways. We found PDGFR? signaling contributes to robust Akt phosphorylation in periosteal cells in comparison with other growth factor signaling pathways. Additionally, we performed femoral fractures on gCblYF mice with a conditional removal of PDGFR? in mesenchymal progenitors using inducible alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA) CreERT2 mice. Our studies showed that depletion of PDGFR? signaling within these progenitors in the early phase of fracture healing significantly abrogates PI3K-mediated periosteal activation and proliferation three days after fracture. Combined, these results suggest that PDGFR? signaling through PI3K is necessary for robust periosteal activation in the earliest phases of fracture healing.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Most bone fracture heals through enchondral bone formation that relies on the involvement of periosteal progenitor cells. However, the identity of periosteal progenitor cells and the regulatory mechanism of their proliferation and differentiation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Gli1-CreERT2 can identify a population of murine periosteal progenitor cells and the role of TGF-? signalling in periosteal progenitor cells on fracture healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Double heterozygous Gli1-CreERT2 ;Rosa26-tdTomatoflox/wt mice were sacrificed at different time points for tracing the fate of Gli1+ cells in both intact and fracture bone. Gli1-CreERT2 -mediated Tgfbr2 knockout (Gli1-CreERT2 ;Tgfbr2flox/flox ) mice were subjected to fracture surgery. At 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days post-surgery, tibia samples were harvested for tissue analyses including ?CT, histology, real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS:Through cell lineage-tracing experiments, we have revealed that Gli1-CreER T2 can be used to identify a subpopulation of periosteal progenitor cells in vivo that persistently reside in periosteum and contribute to osteochondral elements during fracture repair. During the healing process, TGF-? signalling is continually activated in the reparative Gli1+ periosteal cells. Conditional knockout of Tgfbr2 in these cells leads to a delayed and impaired enchondral bone formation, at least partially due to the reduced proliferation and chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of Gli1+ periosteal cells. CONCLUSIONS:TGF-? signalling plays an essential role on fracture repair via regulating enchondral bone formation process of Gli1+ periosteal cells.
Project description:FACS sorted 4 bulk cell population from mouse femur (P6) were subjected to RNA sequencing. The samples were periosteal stem cell (PSC), progenitor population type 1 (PP1), progenitor population 2 (PP2) and CTSK-mGFP negative mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The aim of this project was to obtain Differentially expressed gene list for each cell types as well as compare transcriptinal profile between each population. Overall design: All samples for RNA seq were obtained on the same day from mouse femur within the same litter. Cells were sorted into 4 populations by FACS. No samples were pooled. There are 4 Replicates for each populaton.
Project description:Woven bone is formed in response to fatigue-induced stress fractures and is associated with increased local angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms that regulate this woven bone formation are unknown. Our objective was to measure the temporal and spatial expression of osteo- and angiogenic genes in woven bone formation in response to increasing levels of fatigue-induced damage. We used the rat forelimb compression model to produce four discrete levels of fatigue damage in the right ulna of 115 male Fischer rats. Rats were killed at 0 (1 h), 1, 3 and 7 days after loading. Using qRT-PCR, we quantified gene expression associated with osteogenesis (BMP2, Msx2, Runx2, Osx, BSP, Osc), cell proliferation (Hist4), and angiogenesis (VEGF, PECAM-1) from the central half of the ulna. The spatial distribution of BMP2, BSP and PCNA was assessed by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization in transverse histological sections 1, 4, and 7 mm distal to the ulnar mid-diaphysis. One hour after loading, BMP2 was significantly upregulated in neurovascular structures in the medial ulnar periosteum. Expression of angiogenic markers (VEGF, PECAM-1) increased significantly between Day 0 and 1 and, as with BMP2 expression, remained upregulated through Day 7. While Osx and BSP were upregulated on Day 1, the other osteogenic genes (Msx2, Runx2, Osx, BSP and Osc) were induced on Day 3 in association with the initiation of periosteal woven bone formation and continued through Day 7. The magnitude of osteogenic gene expression, particularly matrix genes (BSP, Osc) was significantly proportional the level of fatigue damage. The woven bone response to fatigue injury is remarkably similar to the "intramembranous" portion of fracture repair - rapid formation of periosteal woven bone characterized by early BMP2 expression, cell proliferation, and upregulation of osteogenic genes. We speculate that woven bone repair of fatigue damage may be an abbreviated fracture response without the requirement for endochondral repair. We conclude that bone fatigue repair is a process similar to intramembranous fracture repair characterized by increases in the expression of genes associated with angiogenesis, cell proliferation and osteoblastogenesis, and that the response from the local vasculature precedes the osteogenic response to fatigue loading.
Project description:Loss of Sostdc1, a growth factor paralogous to Sost, causes the formation of ectopic incisors, fused molars, abnormal hair follicles, and resistance to kidney disease. Sostdc1 is expressed in the periosteum, a source of osteoblasts, fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells, which are critically important for fracture repair. Here, we investigated the role of Sostdc1 in bone metabolism and fracture repair. Mice lacking Sostdc1 (Sostdc1(-/-)) had a low bone mass phenotype associated with loss of trabecular bone in both lumbar vertebrae and in the appendicular skeleton. In contrast, Sostdc1(-/-) cortical bone measurements revealed larger bones with higher BMD, suggesting that Sostdc1 exerts differential effects on cortical and trabecular bone. Mid-diaphyseal femoral fractures induced in Sostdc1(-/-) mice showed that the periosteal population normally positive for Sostdc1 rapidly expands during periosteal thickening and these cells migrate into the fracture callus at 3days post fracture. Quantitative analysis of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast populations determined that MSCs express Sostdc1, and that Sostdc1(-/-) 5day calluses harbor >2-fold more MSCs than fractured wildtype controls. Histologically a fraction of Sostdc1-positive cells also expressed nestin and ?-smooth muscle actin, suggesting that Sostdc1 marks a population of osteochondral progenitor cells that actively participate in callus formation and bone repair. Elevated numbers of MSCs in D5 calluses resulted in a larger, more vascularized cartilage callus at day 7, and a more rapid turnover of cartilage with significantly more remodeled bone and a thicker cortical shell at 21days post fracture. These data support accelerated or enhanced bone formation/remodeling of the callus in Sostdc1(-/-) mice, suggesting that Sostdc1 may promote and maintain mesenchymal stem cell quiescence in the periosteum.
Project description:Bone fracture repair represents an important clinical challenge with nearly 1 million non-union fractures occurring annually in the U.S. Gene expression differs between non-union and healthy repair, suggesting there is a pattern of gene expression that is indicative of optimal repair. Despite this, the gene expression profile of fracture repair remains incompletely understood. In this work, we used RNA-seq of two well-established murine fracture models to describe gene expression of intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. We used top differentially expressed genes, enriched gene ontology terms and pathways, callus cellular phenotyping, and histology to describe and contrast these bone formation processes across time. Intramembranous repair, as modeled by ulnar stress fracture, and endochondral repair, as modeled by femur full fracture, exhibited vastly different transcriptional profiles throughout repair. Stress fracture healing had enriched differentially expressed genes associated with bone repair and osteoblasts, highlighting the strong osteogenic repair process of this model. Interestingly, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway was one of only a few pathways uniquely enriched in stress fracture repair. Full fracture repair involved a higher level of inflammatory and immune cell related genes than did stress fracture repair. Full fracture repair also differed from stress fracture in a robust downregulation of ion channel genes following injury, the role of which in fracture repair is unclear. This study offers a broad description of gene expression in intramembranous and endochondral ossification across several time points throughout repair and suggests several potentially intriguing genes, pathways, and cells whose role in fracture repair requires further study.
Project description:The failure of an osseous fracture to heal (development of a non-union) is a common and debilitating clinical problem. Mice lacking the tumor suppressor Pten in osteoblasts have dramatic and progressive increases in bone volume and density throughout life. Since fracture healing is a recapitulation of bone development, we investigated the process of fracture healing in mice lacking Pten in osteoblasts (Ocn-cre(tg/+;)Pten(flox/flox) ). Mid-diaphyseal femoral fractures induced in wild-type and Ocn-cre(tg/+;)Pten(flox/flox) mice were studied via micro-computed tomography (µCT) scans, biomechanical testing, histological and histomorphometric analysis, and protein expression analysis. Ocn-cre(tg/+;)Pten(flox/flox) mice had significantly stiffer and stronger intact bones relative to controls in all cohorts. They also had significantly stiffer healing bones at day 28 post-fracture (PF) and significantly stronger healing bones at days 14, 21, and 28 PF. At day 7 PF, the proximal and distal ends of the Pten mutant calluses were more ossified. By day 28 PF, Pten mutants had larger and more mineralized calluses. Pten mutants had improved intramembranous bone formation during healing originating from the periosteum. They also had improved endochondral bone formation later in the healing process, after mature osteoblasts are present in the callus. Our results indicate that the inhibition of Pten can improve fracture healing and that the local or short-term use of commercially available Pten-inhibiting agents may have clinical application for enhancing fracture healing.