Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The environmental triggers of islet autoimmunity leading to type 1 diabetes (T1D) need to be elucidated to inform primary prevention. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study follows from birth 8676 children with T1D risk HLA-DR-DQ genotypes in the USA, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. Most study participants (89%) have no first-degree relative with T1D. The primary outcomes include the appearance of one or more persistent islet autoantibodies (islet autoimmunity, IA) and clinical T1D. RECENT FINDINGS:As of February 28, 2018, 769 children had developed IA and 310 have progressed to T1D. Secondary outcomes include celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease. While the follow-up continues, TEDDY has already evaluated a number of candidate environmental triggers, including infections, probiotics, micronutrient, and microbiome. TEDDY results suggest that there are multiple pathways leading to the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Ongoing measurements of further specific exposures, gene variants, and gene-environment interactions and detailed "omics" studies will provide novel information on the pathogenesis of T1D.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess parents' opinions about their participation in the longitudinal, multicenter study - The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) consortium. METHODS:A survey was given to parents who had been in the study for ? 1 year. Parents rated the importance of different reasons for staying in TEDDY and how well different study components were working. Parents were also asked if they had suggestions for making TEDDY better and if they ever had thought of leaving TEDDY and if so, why. RESULTS:Out of the 3336 eligible families, 2000 completed the survey (59.1%); most (77.6%) were mothers. Survey completion was more common in European than US TEDDY sites and was associated with greater maternal education, more accurate perceptions about their child's risk of type 1 diabetes, longer participation in TEDDY and excellent attendance at TEDDY visits. "Having someone watching the child for development of T1DM" was most important reason given for staying in the study; other important reasons included "Helping science discover causes of diabetes" and "Getting child's antibody results". Most parents were very satisfied with the different components of TEDDY and had not thought of leaving the study. A minority (24%) of parents acknowledged some thoughts of leaving TEDDY and cited the blood draws, being too busy/not having enough time, the demanding protocol, and food diaries as their reasons for considering leaving. CONCLUSIONS:The study highlights factors important for successful implementation of demanding, longitudinal protocols. Friendly, devoted, skilled and knowledgeable staff with continuity makes the family comfortable. Keeping parents involved and informed on study progress is essential as is making procedures as smooth and painless as possible. Although the study is international the survey results were convergent across countries suggesting that the results have relevance to other similar studies to retain study participants.
Project description:AIMS:The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study seeks to identify environmental factors influencing the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) using intensive follow-up of children at elevated genetic risk. This study requires a cost-effective yet accurate screening strategy to identify the high-risk cohort. METHODS:The TEDDY cohort was identified through newborn screening using human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes based on criteria established with pre-TEDDY data. HLA typing was completed at six international centers using different genotyping methods that can achieve >98% accuracy. RESULTS:TEDDY developed separate inclusion criteria for the general population (GP) and first-degree relatives (FDRs) of T1D patients. The FDR eligibility includes nine haplogenotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8, DR3/3, DR4/4b, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9, and DR3/9) for broad HLA diversity, whereas the GP eligibility includes only the first four haplogenotypes with DRB1*0403 as an exclusion allele. TEDDY has screened 414 714 GP infants, of which 19 906 (4.8%) were eligible, whereas 1415 of the 6333 screened FDR infants (22.2%) were eligible. High-resolution confirmation testing of the eligible subjects indicated that the low-cost and low-resolution genotyping techniques employed at the screening centers yielded an accuracy of 99%. There were considerable variations in eligibility rates among the centers for GP (3.5-7.4%) and FDR (19-32%) subjects. The eligibility rates among US ethnic groups were 0.9, 1.3, 5.0, and 6.9% for Asians, Black, Caucasians, and Hispanics, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Different low-cost and low-resolution genotyping methods are useful for the efficient and accurate identification of a high-risk cohort for follow-up based on the TEDDY HLA inclusion criteria.
Project description:While it is known that there is progression to diabetes in <10 years in 70% of children with two or more islet autoantibodies, predictors of the progression to diabetes are only partially defined.The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study has observed 8,503 children who were at increased genetic risk for autoimmune diabetes. Insulin autoantibodies (IAAs), GAD65 autoantibodies (GADAs), and insulinoma-associated protein 2 autoantibodies (IA-2As) were measured every 3 months until 4 years of age and every 6 months thereafter; if results were positive, the autoantibodies were measured every 3 months.Life table analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of diabetes by 5 years since the appearance of the first autoantibody differed significantly by the number of positive autoantibodies (47%, 36%, and 11%, respectively, in those with three autoantibodies, two autoantibodies, and one autoantibody, P < 0.001). In time-varying survival models adjusted for first-degree relative status, number of autoantibodies, age at first persistent confirmed autoantibodies, and HLA genotypes, higher mean IAA and IA-2A levels were associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes in children who were persistently autoantibody positive (IAAs: hazard ratio [HR] 8.1 [95% CI 4.6-14.2]; IA-2A: HR 7.4 [95% CI 4.3-12.6]; P < 0.0001]). The mean GADA level did not significantly affect the risk of diabetes.In the TEDDY study, children who have progressed to diabetes usually expressed two or more autoantibodies. Higher IAA and IA-2A levels, but not GADA levels, increased the risk of diabetes in those children who were persistently autoantibody positive.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A nested case-control (NCC) design within a prospective cohort study can realize substantial benefits for biomarker studies. In this context, it is natural to consider the sample availability in the selection of controls to minimize data loss when implementing the design. However, this violates the randomness required for selection, and it leads to biased analyses. An inverse probability weighting may improve the analysis, but the current approach using weighted Cox regression fails to maintain the benefits of NCC design.<h4>Methods</h4>This paper introduces weighted conditional logistic regression. We illustrate our proposed analysis using data recently investigated in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY). Considering the potential data loss, the TEDDY NCC design was moderately selective in its selection of controls. A data-driven simulation study was performed to present the bias correction when a nonrandom control selection was ignored in the analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The TEDDY data analysis showed that the standard analysis using conditional logistic regression estimated the parameter: -0.015 (-0.023, -0.007). The biased estimate using Cox regression was -0.011 (95% confidence interval: -0.019, -0.003). Weighted Cox regression estimated -0.013 (-0.026, 0.0004). The proposed weighted conditional logistic regression estimated -0.020 (-0.033, -0.007), showing a stronger negative effect size than the one using conditional logistic regression. The simulation study also showed that the standard estimate of ? ignoring the nonrandom control selection tends to be greater than the true ? (ie, positive relative biases).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Weighted conditional logistic regression can enhance the analysis by offering flexibility in the selection of controls, while maintaining the matching.
Project description:The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) Study investigates genetic and genetic-environmental interactions, including gestational infection or other gestational events, childhood infections and other environmental factors after birth, in relation to the development of pre-diabetic islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Beginning in 2002, a consortium of six centers assembled to participate in the development and implementation of studies to identify environmental factors that trigger the development of islet autoimmunity and T1D in genetically susceptible individuals. The TEDDY study screened around 400,000 newborns and recruited 7,749 neonates from the general population with a pre-determined T1D risk of 3% and 919 neonates with first degree relatives who have T1D and who have a pre-determined T1D risk of 10%. Thus, TEDDY proposes to follow over 8,000 participants across six clinical centers worldwide (Finland, Germany, Sweden... (for more see dbGaP study page.)
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Respiratory infections and onset of islet autoimmunity are reported to correlate positively in two small prospective studies. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study is the largest prospective international cohort study on the environmental determinants of type 1 diabetes that regularly monitors both clinical infections and islet autoantibodies. The aim was to confirm the influence of reported respiratory infections and to further characterise the temporal relationship with autoantibody seroconversion. METHODS:During the years 2004-2009, 8676 newborn babies with HLA genotypes conferring an increased risk of type 1 diabetes were enrolled at 3 months of age to participate in a 15 year follow-up. In the present study, the association between parent-reported respiratory infections and islet autoantibodies at 3 month intervals up to 4 years of age was evaluated in 7869 children. Time-dependent proportional hazard models were used to assess how the timing of respiratory infections related to persistent confirmed islet autoimmunity, defined as autoantibody positivity against insulin, GAD and/or insulinoma antigen-2, concordant at two reference laboratories on two or more consecutive visits. RESULTS:In total, 87,327 parent-reported respiratory infectious episodes were recorded while the children were under study surveillance for islet autoimmunity, and 454 children seroconverted. The number of respiratory infections occurring in a 9 month period was associated with the subsequent risk of autoimmunity (p < 0.001). For each 1/year rate increase in infections, the hazard of islet autoimmunity increased by 5.6% (95% CI 2.5%, 8.8%). The risk association was linked primarily to infections occurring in the winter (HR 1.42 [95% CI 1.16, 1.74]; p < 0.001). The types of respiratory infection independently associated with autoimmunity were common cold, influenza-like illness, sinusitis, and laryngitis/tracheitis, with HRs (95% CI) of 1.38 (1.11, 1.71), 2.37 (1.35, 4.15), 2.63 (1.22, 5.67) and 1.76 (1.04, 2.98), respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Recent respiratory infections in young children correlate with an increased risk of islet autoimmunity in the TEDDY study. Further studies to identify the potential causative viruses with pathogen-specific assays should focus especially on the 9 month time window leading to autoantibody seroconversion.
Project description:Perinatal exposure to nutrients and dietary components may affect the risk for coeliac disease (CD). We investigated the association between maternal use of vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids (FA) and Fe supplements during pregnancy and risk for CD autoimmunity (CDA) and CD in the offspring. Children at increased genetic risk were prospectively followed from birth in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. CDA was defined as having persistently positive tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Diagnosis of CD was either biopsy-confirmed or considered likely if having persistently elevated levels of tTGA>100 AU. Of 6627 enrolled children, 1136 developed CDA at a median 3·1 years of age (range 0·9-10) and 409 developed CD at a median 3·9 years of age (range 1·2-11). Use of supplements containing vitamin D, n-3 FA and Fe was recalled by 66, 17 and 94 % of mothers, respectively, at 3-4 months postpartum. The mean cumulative intake over the entire pregnancy was 2014 ?g vitamin D (sd 2045 ?g), 111 g n-3 FA (sd 303 g) and 8806 mg Fe (sd 7017 mg). After adjusting for country, child's human leucocyte antigen genotype, sex, family history of CD, any breast-feeding duration and household crowding, Cox's proportional hazard ratios did not suggest a statistically significant association between the intake of vitamin D, n-3 FA or Fe, and risk for CDA or CD. Dietary supplementation during pregnancy may help boost nutrient intake, but it is not likely to modify the risk for the disease in the offspring.