Project description:Skeletal muscle exhibits a high regenerative capacity, mainly due to the ability of satellite cells to replicate and differentiate in response to appropriate stimuli. Epigenetic control is effective at different stages of this process. It has been shown that the chromatin-remodeling factor HDAC4 is able to regulate satellite cell proliferation and commitment. However, its molecular targets are still uncovered. To explain the signaling pathways regulated by HDAC4 in satellite cells, we generated tamoxifen-inducible mice with conditional inactivation of HDAC4 in Pax7+ cells (HDAC4 KO mice). We found that the proliferation and differentiation of HDAC4 KO satellite cells were compromised, although similar amounts of satellite cells were found in mice. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of HDAC4 in satellite cells was sufficient to block the differentiation process. By RNA-sequencing analysis we identified P21 and Sharp1 as HDAC4 target genes. Reducing the expression of these target genes in HDAC4 KO satellite cells, we also defined the molecular pathways regulated by HDAC4 in the epigenetic control of satellite cell expansion and fusion.
Project description:The class II Histone deacetylase (HDAC), HDAC4, is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, and it represses differentiation of specific cell types. We demonstrate here that HDAC4 is expressed in the proliferative zone in small intestine and colon and that its expression is down-regulated during intestinal differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Subcellular localization studies demonstrated HDAC4 expression was predominantly nuclear in proliferating HCT116 cells and relocalized to the cytoplasm after cell cycle arrest. Down-regulating HDAC4 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in HCT116 cells induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in vitro, reduced xenograft tumor growth, and increased p21 transcription. Conversely, overexpression of HDAC4 repressed p21 promoter activity. p21 was likely a direct target of HDAC4, because HDAC4 down-regulation increased p21 mRNA when protein synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide. The importance of p21 repression in HDAC4-mediated growth promotion was demonstrated by the failure of HDAC4 down-regulation to induce growth arrest in HCT116 p21-null cells. HDAC4 down-regulation failed to induce p21 when Sp1 was functionally inhibited by mithramycin or siRNA-mediated down-regulation. HDAC4 expression overlapped with that of Sp1, and a physical interaction was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP analyses demonstrated Sp1-dependent binding of HDAC4 to the proximal p21 promoter, likely directed through the HDAC4-HDAC3-N-CoR/SMRT corepressor complex. Consistent with increased transcription, HDAC4 or SMRT down-regulation resulted in increased histone H3 acetylation at the proximal p21 promoter locus. These studies identify HDAC4 as a novel regulator of colon cell proliferation through repression of p21.
Project description:During muscle regeneration, the transcription factor Pax7 stimulates the differentiation of satellite cells (SCs) toward the muscle lineage but restricts adipogenesis. Here, we identify HDAC4 as a regulator of Pax7-dependent muscle regeneration. In HDAC4-deficient SCs, the expression of Pax7 and its target genes is reduced. We identify HDAC4-regulated Lix1 as a Pax7 target gene required for SC proliferation. HDAC4 inactivation leads to defective SC proliferation, muscle regeneration, and aberrant lipid accumulation. Further, expression of the brown adipose master regulator Prdm16 and its inhibitory microRNA-133 are also deregulated. Thus, HDAC4 is a novel regulator of Pax7-dependent SC proliferation and potentially fate determination in regenerating muscle.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as tumor promoting or tumor suppressing factors in many cancers. MiR-520b contributes to progression in head-neck and liver cancers, spinal osteosarcoma, and glioma; however, the association of miR-520b with lung cancer progression remains unknown. In this investigation, we explore the effect of miR-520b targeting HDAC4 on lung cancer growth. METHODS:The regulation of miR-520b or its inhibitor on HDAC4 expression was analyzed using Western blot analysis. After treatment of miR-520b or its inhibitor, miR-520b and HDAC4 levels were examined using quantitative real time-PCR. The modulation of miR-520b on HDAC4 was investigated by luciferase reporter gene assay. Cell proliferation evaluation was performed using colony formation and methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assays. The correlation between miR-520b and HDAC4 in human clinical samples was verified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS:An obvious decrease in HDAC4 expression was observed in lung cancer A549 cells treated with different doses of miR-520b. The miR-520b inhibitor enhanced HDAC4 expression in lung cancer cells. Bioinformatics predicted the targeting of miR-520b on HDAC4. MiR-520b directly targeted the 3' untranslated region of HDAC4. The introduction of miR-520b obviously inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. Anti-miR-520b was capable of accelerating lung cancer cell proliferation; however, HDAC4 knockdown destroyed anti-miR-520b-induced cell proliferation. Finally, a negative correlation between miR-520b and HDAC4 was observed in clinical human lung cancer samples. CONCLUSION:MiR-520b decreases HDAC4 expression to control cell proliferation in lung cancer.
Project description:NGS technology was used for high-throughput profiling of the transcriptome by comparing satellite cells lacking or not HDAC4. Overall design: Total RNA was isolated from control and HDAC4 KO satellite cells in growth conditions
Project description:Muscle development, or myogenesis, is a highly regulated, complex process. A subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as critical regulators of myogenesis. Recently, miR-378a was found to be involved in myogenesis, but the mechanism of how miR-378a regulates the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts has not been determined. We found that miR-378a-3p expression in muscle was significantly higher than in other tissues, suggesting an important effect on muscle development. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p increased the expression of MyoD and MHC in C2C12 myoblasts both at the level of mRNA and protein, confirming that miR-378a-3p promoted muscle cell differentiation. The forced expression of miR-378a-3p promoted apoptosis of C2C12 cells as evidenced by CCK-8 assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining results. Through TargetScan, histone acetylation enzyme 4 (HDAC4) was identified as a potential target of miR-378a-3p. We confirmed targeting of HDAC4 by miR-378a-3p using a dual luciferase assay and western blotting. Our RNAi analysis results also showed that HDAC4 significantly promoted differentiation of C2C12 cells and inhibited cell survival through Bcl-2. Therefore, we conclude that miR-378a-3p regulates skeletal muscle growth and promotes the differentiation of myoblasts through the post-transcriptional down-regulation of HDAC4.
Project description:The adaptor protein Numb has been implicated in the switch between cell proliferation and differentiation made by satellite cells during muscle repair. Using two genetic approaches to ablate Numb, we determined that, in its absence, muscle regeneration in response to injury was impaired. Single myofiber cultures demonstrated a lack of satellite cell proliferation in the absence of Numb, and the proliferation defect was confirmed in satellite cell cultures. Quantitative RT-PCR from Numb-deficient satellite cells demonstrated highly up-regulated expression of p21 and Myostatin, both inhibitors of myoblast proliferation. Transfection with Myostatin-specific siRNA rescued the proliferation defect of Numb-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Numb in satellite cells inhibited Myostatin expression. These data indicate a unique function for Numb during the initial activation and proliferation of satellite cells in response to muscle injury.
Project description:The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here, we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CDKIs) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells, FGF2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15(INK4B) and p27(KIP1) , become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND Denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy results in significant biochemical and physiological changes potentially leading to devastating outcomes including increased mortality. Effective treatments for skeletal muscle diseases are currently not available. Muscle-specific miRNAs, such as miR-206, play an important role in the regulation of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to examine the beneficial effects of miR-206 treatment during the early changes in skeletal muscle atrophy, and to study the underlying signaling pathways in a rat skeletal muscle atrophy model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The rat denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy model was established. miRNA-206 was overexpressed with or without TGF-?1 inhibitor in the rats. The mRNA and protein expression of HDAC4, TGF-?1, and Smad3 was determined by real-time PCR and western blot. The gastrocnemius muscle cross-sectional area and relative muscle mass were measured. MyoD1, TGF-?1, and Pax7 were determined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS After sciatic nerve surgical transection, basic muscle characteristics, such as relative muscle weight, deteriorated continuously during a 2-week period. Injection of miR-206 (30 ?g/rat) attenuated morphological and physiological deterioration of muscle characteristics, prevented fibrosis effectively, and inhibited the expression of TGF-?1 and HDAC4 as assessed 2 weeks after denervation. Moreover, miR-206 treatment increased the number of differentiating (MyoD1+/Pax7+) satellite cells, thereby protecting denervated muscles from atrophy. Interestingly, the ability of miR-206 to govern HDAC4 expression and to attenuate muscle atrophy was weakened after pharmacological blockage of the TGF-b1/Smad3 axis. CONCLUSIONS TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling pathway is one of the crucial signaling pathways by which miR-206 counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy by affecting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. miR-206 may be a potential target for development of a new strategy for treatment of patients with early denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has indicated that circular RNAs (circRNAs) serve crucial roles in the progression of a diverse range of different types of cancer, including osteosarcoma (OS). The present study determined the expression pattern and function of circRNA homeodomain interacting protein kinase 3 (circHIPK3), a novel circular RNA, in OS. It was revealed that circHIPK3 expression was upregulated in OS tissue samples and OS cell lines. A localization assay revealed that circHIPK3 was primarily located in the cytoplasm. Using loss?of?function proliferation and Transwell assays, the present study revealed that circHIPK3?knockdown suppressed OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the present study screened potential microRNAs that may interact with circHIPK3. It was revealed that microRNA?637 (miR?637) expression was downregulated in OS according to a Gene Expression Omnibus data analysis. In addition, the present study demonstrated that miR?637 expression was downregulated in OS cell lines. A fluorescence in situ hybridization assay revealed that both miR?637 and circHIPK3 were located in the cytoplasm. An in?depth mechanism investigation demonstrated that circHIPK3 expression was inversely correlated with miR?637 expression, and that circHIPK3 was a target of miR?637. In addition, it was revealed that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) was another downstream target gene of miR?637, as demonstrated using a luciferase assay. It was revealed that miR?637 suppressed OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting of HDAC4. Finally, the present study demonstrated that circHIPK3 sponged miR?637 to promote HDAC4 expression and OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In conclusion, the present study uncovered the role of the circHIPK3/miR?637/HDAC4 axis in OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. It was demonstrated that circHIPK3 promoted OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion by modulating miR?637/HDAC4 signaling.