Project description:Small molecules directly binding DNA in cells destabilized chromatin what is "sensed" by histone chaperone FACT. FACT binds regions with destabilized chromatin via "c-trapping". DNA-targeting small molecules are widely used for anticancer therapy based on their ability to induce cell death, presumably via DNA damage. DNA in the eukaryotic cell is packed into chromatin, a highly-ordered complex of DNA, histones, and non-histone proteins. These agents perturb chromatin organization. However, the mechanisms, consequences, and impact of the alterations of chromatin structure in relation to their anti-cancer activity is unclear because it is difficult to separate DNA damage and chromatin damage in cells. We recently demonstrated that curaxins, small molecules with broad anticancer activity, bind DNA without causing detectable DNA damage by interfering with histone/DNA interactions and destabilizing the nucleosome. Chromatin unfolding caused by curaxins is sensed by histone chaperone FACT. FACT binds unfolded nucleosomes, which leads to chromatin trapping or c-trapping. In this study, we investigated whether other DNA-targeting small molecules disturb chromatin and cause c-trapping. We found that only compounds directly binding DNA induce chromatin damage and c-trapping. Chromatin damage may occur in the absence of DNA damage and is dependent on the mechanism of compound binding to DNA and its ability to bind chromatinized DNA in cells. We show that FACT is sensitive to a plethora of nucleosomes perturbations induced by DNA-binding small molecules, including displacement of the linker histone, eviction of core histones, and accumulation of negative supercoiling. Most importantly, the cytotoxicity of DNA-binding small molecules correlates with their ability to cause chromatin damage, but not DNA damage. Overall design: HT1080 cells were treated with 3uM of CBL0137, 0.3uM of CBL0100 or 3uM of aclacinomycin A for 1.5 hours
Project description:SSRP1 is a subunit of the FACT complex, an important histone chaperone required for transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and damage repair. SSRP1 also plays important roles in transcriptional regulation independent of Spt16 and interacts with other proteins. Here, we report the crystal structure of the middle domain of SSRP1. It consists of tandem pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. These domains differ from the typical PH domain in that PH1 domain has an extra conserved βαβ topology. SSRP1 contains the well-characterized DNA-binding HMG-1 domain. Our studies revealed that SSRP1-M can also participate in DNA binding, and that this binding involves one positively charged patch on the surface of the structure. In addition, SSRP1-M did not bind to histones, which was assessed through pull-down assays. This aspect makes the protein different from other related proteins adopting the double PH domain structure. Our studies facilitate the understanding of SSRP1 and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of interaction with DNA and histones of the FACT complex.
Project description:In this study, microarray data analysis, real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression levels of SSRP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue and in corresponding normal tissue. The association between structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) expression and patient prognosis was examined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. SSRP1 was knocked down and overexpressed in CRC cell lines, and its effects on proliferation, cell cycling, migration, invasion, cellular energy metabolism, apoptosis, chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity and cell phenotype-related molecules were assessed. The growth of xenograft tumours in nude mice was also assessed. MiRNAs that potentially targeted SSRP1 were determined by bioinformatic analysis, Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. We showed that SSRP1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in CRC tissue. We also confirmed that this upregulation was related to the terminal tumour stage in CRC patients, and high expression levels of SSRP1 predicted shorter disease-free survival and faster relapse. We also found that SSRP1 modulated proliferation, metastasis, cellular energy metabolism and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in CRC. Furthermore, SSRP1 induced apoptosis and SSRP1 knockdown augmented the sensitivity of CRC cells to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Moreover, we explored the molecular mechanisms accounting for the dysregulation of SSRP1 in CRC and identified microRNA-28-5p (miR-28-5p) as a direct upstream regulator of SSRP1. We concluded that SSRP1 promotes CRC progression and is negatively regulated by miR-28-5p.
Project description:The histone chaperone complex facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) plays important roles in DNA repair, replication, and transcription. In the formation of this complex, structure-specific recognition protein-1 (SSRP1) heterodimerizes with suppressor of Ty 16 (SPT16). SSRP1 also has SPT16-independent functions, but how SSRP1 functions alone remains elusive. Here, using analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques, we characterized human SSRP1 and that from the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and show that both orthologs form an elongated homodimer in solution. We found that substitutions in the SSRP1 pleckstrin homology domain known to bind SPT16 also disrupt SSRP1 homodimerization. Moreover, AUC and SAXS analyses revealed that SSRP1 homodimerization and heterodimerization with SPT16 (resulting in FACT) involve the same SSRP1 surface, namely the PH2 region, and that the FACT complex contains only one molecule of SSRP1. These observations suggest that SSRP1 homo- and heterodimerization might be mutually exclusive. Moreover, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses disclosed that SSRP1 binds both histones H2A-H2B and H3-H4 and that disruption of SSRP1 homodimerization decreases its histone-binding affinity. Together, our results provide evidence for regulation of SSRP1 by homodimerization and suggest a potential role for homodimerization in facilitating SPT16-independent functions of SSRP1.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide with a high incidence rate. Therefore, the molecular basis of colorectal tumorigenesis and evolution must be clarified. Structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) is involved in transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle regulation and has been confirmed to be highly expressed in various tumor tissues, including colorectal cancer. However, the role of SSRP1 in the development of colorectal cancer remains unclear. Therefore, this study explored the role of SSRP1 in the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer. Using bioinformatics databases, including samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we confirmed high SSRP1 expression in human colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues. We demonstrated that SSRP1 knockdown via small interfering RNA significantly inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and promoted apoptosis through the AKT signaling pathway, suppressing the invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that SSRP1 silencing influenced the proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells via the AKT signaling pathway.
Project description:Structure-specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) has been considered as a potential biomarker, since aberrant high expression of SSRP1 has been detected in numerous malignant tumors. However, the correlation between the expression level of SSRP1 and glioma remains unclear. The present study attempted to investigate the role of SSRP1 in the pathogenesis of glioma. In the present study, our data revealed that SSRP1 overexpression was detected in glioma tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. We also demonstrated that the upregulated expression of SSRP1 was correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) grade of glioma. The knockdown of SSRP1 by siRNA not only resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, but also significantly inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion. Mechanistic analyses revealed that SSRP1 depletion suppressed the activity of the phosphorylation of the MAPK signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study indicated that SSRP1 regulated the proliferation and metastasis of glioma cells via the MAPK signaling pathway.
Project description:The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical implication and functional role of structure specific recognition protein 1 (SSRP1) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and explore the underlying mechanism of aberrant high expression of SSRP1 in cancers. In the present investigation, we validated that SSRP1 was upregulated in HCC samples. We also demonstrated that its upregulation was associated with several clinicopathologic features such as higher serum AFP level, larger tumor size, and higher T stage of HCC patients; and its high expression indicated shorter overall survival and faster recurrence. To investigate the role of SSRP1 in HCC progression, both loss- and gain-function models were established. We demonstrated that SSPR1 modulated both proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that SSRP1-modulated apoptosis process and its knockdown increased the sensitivity of HCC cells to doxorubicin, 5-Fluorouracil, and cisplatin. We also identified microRNA-497 (miR-497) as a posttranscriptional regulator of SSRP1. Ectopic expression of miR-497 inhibited 3'-untranslated-region-coupled luciferase activity and suppressed endogenous SSRP1 expression at both messenger RNA and protein levels. For the first time, we proved that SSRP1 upregulation contributed to HCC development and the tumor-suppressive miR-497 served as its negative regulator.
Project description:In several metazoans, the number of active replication origins in embryonic nuclei is higher than in somatic ones, ensuring rapid genome duplication during synchronous embryonic cell divisions. High replication origin density can be restored by somatic nuclear reprogramming. However, mechanisms underlying high replication origin density formation coupled to rapid cell cycles are poorly understood. Here, using Xenopus laevis, we show that SSRP1 stimulates replication origin assembly on somatic chromatin by promoting eviction of histone H1 through its N-terminal domain. Histone H1 removal derepresses ORC and MCM chromatin binding, allowing efficient replication origin assembly. SSRP1 protein decays at mid-blastula transition (MBT) when asynchronous somatic cell cycles start. Increasing levels of SSRP1 delay MBT and, surprisingly, accelerate post-MBT cell cycle speed and embryo development. These findings identify a major epigenetic mechanism regulating DNA replication and directly linking replication origin assembly, cell cycle duration and embryo development in vertebrates.
Project description:FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription (FACT) is a complex of SSRP1 and SPT16 that is involved in chromatin remodeling during transcription, replication, and DNA repair. FACT has been mostly studied in cell-free or single cell model systems because general FACT knockout (KO) is embryonically lethal (E3.5). FACT levels are limited to the early stages of development and stem cell niches of adult tissues. FACT is upregulated in poorly differentiated aggressive tumors. Importantly, FACT inhibition (RNAi) is lethal for tumors but not normal cells, making FACT a lucrative target for anticancer therapy. To develop a better understanding of FACT function in the context of the mammalian organism under normal physiological conditions and in disease, we aimed to generate a conditional FACT KO mouse model. Because SPT16 stability is dependent on the SSRP1-SPT16 association and the presence of SSRP1 mRNA, we targeted the Ssrp1 gene using a CreERT2- LoxP approach to generate the FACT KO model. Here, we highlight the limitations of the CreERT2-LoxP (Rosa26) system that we encountered during the generation of this model. In vitro studies showed an inefficient excision rate of ectopically expressed CreERT2 (retroviral CreERT2) in fibroblasts with homozygous floxed Ssrp1. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that the excision efficiency could only be increased with germline expression of two alleles of Rosa26CreERT2. The expression of one germline Rosa26CreERT2 allele led to the incomplete excision of Ssrp1. The limited efficiency of the CreERT2-LoxP system may be sufficient for studies involving the deletion of genes that interfere with cell growth or viability due to the positive selection of the phenotype. However, it may not be sufficient for studies that involve the deletion of genes supporting growth, or those crucial for development. Although CreERT2-LoxP is broadly used, it has limitations that have not been widely discussed. This paper aims to encourage such discussions.