Project description:Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide. Despite the global efforts to curb them, Campylobacter infections have increased continuously in both developed and developing countries. The development of effective strategies to control the infection by this pathogen is warranted. The essential genes of bacteria are the most prominent targets for this purpose. In this study, we used transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) of a genome-saturating library of Tn5 insertion mutants to define the essential genome of C. jejuni at a high resolution.We constructed a Tn5 mutant library of unprecedented complexity in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 with 95,929 unique insertions throughout the genome and used the genomic DNA of the library for the reconstruction of Tn5 libraries in the same (C. jejuni NCTC 11168) and different strain background (C. jejuni 81-176) through natural transformation. We identified 166 essential protein-coding genes and 20 essential transfer RNAs (tRNA) in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 which were intolerant to Tn5 insertions during in vitro growth. The reconstructed C. jejuni 81-176 library had 384 protein coding genes with no Tn5 insertions. Essential genes in both strain backgrounds were highly enriched in the cluster of orthologous group (COG) categories of 'Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis (J)', 'Energy production and conversion (C)', and 'Coenzyme transport and metabolism (H)'.Comparative analysis among this and previous studies identified 50 core essential genes of C. jejuni, which can be further investigated for the development of novel strategies to control the spread of this notorious foodborne bacterial pathogen.
Project description:The sequencing, assembly, and analysis of bacterial genomes is central to tracking and characterizing foodborne pathogens. The bulk of bacterial genome sequencing at the US Food and Drug Administration is performed using short-read Illumina MiSeq technology, resulting in highly accurate but fragmented genomic sequences. The MinION sequencer from Oxford Nanopore is an evolving technology that produces long-read sequencing data with low equipment cost. The goal of this study was to compare Campylobacter genome assemblies generated from MiSeq and MinION data independently, as well as hybrid genome assemblies combining both data types. Two reference strains and two field isolates of C. jejuni were sequenced using MiSeq and MinION, and the sequence data were assembled using the software programs SPAdes and Canu, respectively. Hybrid genome assembly was performed using the program Unicycler. Comparison of the C. jejuni 81-176 and RM1221 genome assemblies to the PacBio reference genomes revealed that the SPAdes assemblies had the most accurate nucleotide identity, while the hybrid assemblies were the most contiguous. Assemblies generated only from MinION data using Canu were the least accurate, containing many indels and substitutions that affected downstream analyses. The hybrid sequencing approach was the most useful for detecting plasmids, large genome rearrangements, and repetitive elements such as rRNA and tRNA genes. The full genomes of both C. jejuni field isolates were completed and circularized using hybrid sequencing, and a plasmid was detected in one isolate. Continued development of nanopore sequencing technologies will likely enhance the accuracy of hybrid genome assemblies and enable public health laboratories to routinely generate complete circularized bacterial genome sequences.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and Campylobacter coli are leading causes of gastroenteritis, with virulence linked to cell surface carbohydrate diversity. Although the associated gene clusters are well studied for C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli has been largely neglected. Here we provide comparative analysis of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) gene clusters, using genome and cluster sequence data for 36 C. coli strains, 67 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains and ten additional Campylobacter species. Similar to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, C. coli showed high LOS/CPS gene diversity, with each cluster delineated into eight gene content classes. This diversity was predominantly due to extensive gene gain/loss, with the lateral transfer of genes likely occurring both within and between species and also between the LOS and CPS. Additional mechanisms responsible for LOS/CPS diversity included phase-variable homopolymeric repeats, gene duplication/inactivation, and possibly host environment selection pressure. Analyses also showed that (i) strains of C. coli and Campylobacter upsaliensis possessed genes homologous to the sialic acid genes implicated in the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and (ii) C. coli LOS classes were differentiated between bovine and poultry hosts, potentially aiding post infection source tracking.
Project description:Genetic studies of Campylobacter jejuni have been limited due to the lack of a transposon mutagenesis method. Here, we describe a novel technique for random transposon mutagenesis using a mariner-based transposon into C. jejuni strain 480. Insertions were random, as demonstrated by Southern blot analysis and insertional junction sequencing. We have demonstrated, for the first time, random in vivo transposon mutagenesis of C. jejuni.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Penner serotype HS:19 is among several capsular types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Penner reference strain RM3420.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 35925, an avian isolate from Sweden. The genome gives insight into the ATCC 35925 strain's remarkable ability to tolerate copper and its permissiveness to plasmid transformation.
Project description:Genome sequences of Campylobacter jejuni FJ3124 and ZP3204 isolated from retail chicken gizzards and Campylobacter jejuni TS1218 isolated from retail chicken showed the presence of 1,694,324-, 1,763,161-, and 1,762,596-bp circular chromosomes, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni ZP3204 and TS1218 harbored large tetracycline resistance plasmids with type IV secretion systems.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308) is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently publicly available. Compared to these, M1 is closest to strain 81116. Based on the 13 genome sequences, we have identified the C. jejuni pan-genome, as well as the core genome, the auxiliary genes, and genes unique between strains M1 and 81116. The pan-genome contains 2,427 gene families, whilst the core genome comprised 1,295 gene families, or about two-thirds of the gene content of the average of the sequenced C. jejuni genomes. Various comparison and visualization tools were applied to the 13 C. jejuni genome sequences, including a species pan- and core genome plot, a BLAST Matrix and a BLAST Atlas. Trees based on 16S rRNA sequences and on the total gene families in each genome are presented. The findings are discussed in the background of the proven virulence potential of M1.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is an enteric bacterium that can cause abortion in livestock. This is the release of a multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni genome from an isolate that caused an abortion in a cow in northern California. This isolate is part of the 100K Pathogen Genome Project.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are two of the major causes of foodborne illness. In this study, 29 plasmids isolated from 20 retail meat isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were fully-sequenced individually or as a part of a whole genome sequencing approach. The fully-sequenced plasmids ranged in size from 3 to 119 kb. Molecular characterization of the sequenced plasmids was based on pangenomic analysis and types of genes present on these plasmids and similar ones from GenBank. The plasmids were categorized into four different groups. These groups include type-1 that consisted mainly of pTet plasmids with the tetO gene, type-2 plasmids commonly found in C. coli strains, type-3 which has pVir plasmids, and type-4 that consisted mainly of smaller plasmids. The type-2 plasmids were unique, common among C. coli strains, and carried several conjugative transfer genes. The type-2 plasmids were most similar to a plasmid from Helicobacter pullorum. Maximum parsimony analysis and NeighborNet analysis were used to assess the phylogenetic relatedness among the 29 plasmid sequences presented in this study in addition to the other 104 plasmid sequences of Campylobacter species available in GenBank to date. Results from MP analysis revealed multiple lineages among Campylobacter plasmids which was supported by NeighborNet analysis. Clustering of plasmids did not conform to species-specific clades which suggested an intra-species dissemination of plasmids among Campylobacter species. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive phylogenetic analysis of Campylobacter plasmids sequenced to date.